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12 raspail-ip2eurogatenet (19420620757) 93 ms 95 ms 97 ms 13 19420620717 (19420620717) 200 ms 94 ms 209 ms 14 stamand1renaterftnet (1929343185) 105 ms 101 ms 105 ms 15 stlambertrerifftnet (1929343117) 108 ms 102 ms 95 ms 16 danton1rerifftnet (193485350) 110 ms 97 ms 91 ms 17 u-jussieu-parisrerifftnet (1934858122) 94 ms 96 ms 100 ms 18 r-jusrenreseaujussieufr (1924454126) 100 ms 94 ms 100 ms 19 r-ibpreseaujussieufr (134157254250) 96 ms 100 ms 94 ms 20 masiibpfr (1322276023) 121 ms 100 ms 97 ms 21 * dianeibpfr (1322276448) 105 ms 102 ms In the above trace there are no routers between the source and the destination Most of these routers have a name, and all of them have addresses For example, the name of router 8 is sl-dc-6-H2/0-T3sprintlink net and its address is 1442281033 Looking at the data provided for this same router, we see that in the first of the three trials the roundtrip delay between the source and the router 8 was 19 msec The roundtrip delays for the subsequent two trials were 18 and 24 msec These roundtrip delays include packet propagation delays, router processing delays, and queueing delays due to congestion in the Internet Because the congestion is varying with time, the roundtrip delay to a router n can actually be longer than the roundtrip delay to router n+1 Note in the above example that there is a big jump in the round-trip delay when going from router 10 to router 11 This is because the link between routers 10 and 11 is a transatlantic link Want to try out traceroute from some other starting points besides Tel-Aviv and Dana Point Then visit Yahoo's List of sites offering route tracing References [RFC 1393] G Malkin, "Traceroute Using an IP Option," RFC 1393, January 1993
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Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose 1996-1998
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Access Networks and Physical Media
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15 Access Networks and Physical Media
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In sections 13 and 14 we have examined the roles of end systems and routers in a network architecture In this section we consider the access network - the physical link(s) that connect an end system to its edge router, ie, the first router on a path from the end system to any other distant end system Since access network technology is closely tied to physical media technology (fiber, coaxial pair, twisted pair telephone wire, radio spectrum), we consider these two topics together in this section
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Figure 15-1 shows the access networks' links highlighted in red
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Figure 15-1: Access networks Access networks can be loosely divided into three categories:
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residential access networks, connecting a home end system into the network; institutional access networks, connecting an end system in a business or educational institution into the network; mobile access networks, connecting a mobile end system into the network
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These categories are not hard and fast; some corporate end systems may well use the access network technology that we ascribe to residential access networks, and vice versa Our descriptions below are meant to hold for the common (if not every) case
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Residential Access Networks
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A residential access network connects a home end system (typically a PC, but perhaps a Web TV or other residential system) to an edge router Probably the most common form of home access is using a modem over a POTS (plain old telephone system) dialup line to an Internet service provider (ISP) The home modem converts the digital output of the PC into analog format for transmission over the analog phone line A modem in the ISP converts the analog signal back into digital form for input to the ISP router In this case, the "access network" is simply a point-to-point dialup link into an edge router The point-to-point link
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