Network Layer: Introduction and Service Models in Java

Generation Quick Response Code in Java Network Layer: Introduction and Service Models
Network Layer: Introduction and Service Models
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algorithm would determine, for example, whether packets from H1 to H2 flow along the path R2-R1-R3 or path R2R4-R3 (or any other path between H1 and H2) Much of this chapter will focus on routing algorithms In Section 42 we will study the theory of routing algorithms, concentrating on the two most prevalent classes of routing algorithms: link state routing and distance vector routing We will see that the complexity of a routing algorithms grows considerably as the number of routers in the network increases This motivates the use of hierarchical routing, a topic we cover in section 43 In Section 48 we cover multicast routing -- the routing algorithms, switching function, and call setup mechanisms that allow a packet that is sent just once by a sender to be delivered to multiple destinations Switching When a packet arrives at the input to a router, the router must move it to the appropriate output link For example, a packet arriving from host H1 to router R2 must either be forwarded towards H2 either along the link from R2 to R1 or along the link from R2 to R4 In Section 46, we look inside a router and examine how a packet is actually switched (moved) from an input link to an output link Call Setup Recall that in our study of TCP, a three-way handshake was required before data actually flowed from sender to receiver This allowed the sender and receiver to setup the needed state information (eg, sequence number and initial flow control window size) In an analogous manner, some network layer architectures (eg, ATM) requires that the routers along the chosen path from source to destination handshake with each other in order to setup state before data actually begins to flow In the network layer, this process is referred to as call setup The network layer of the Internet architecture does not perform any such call setup
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Before delving into the details of the theory and implementation of the network layer, however, let us first take the broader view and consider what different types of service might be offered by the network layer
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411 Network Service Model
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When the transport layer at a sending host transmits a packet into the network (ie, passes it down to the network layer at the sending host), can the transport layer count on the network layer to deliver the packet to the destination When multiple packets are sent, will they be delivered to the transport layer in the receiving host in the order in which they were sent Will the amount of time between the sending of two sequential packet transmissions be the same as the amount of time between their reception Will the network provide any feedback about congestion in the network What is the abstract view (properties) of the channel connecting the transport layer in the two hosts The answers to these questions and others are determined by the service model provided by the network layer The network service model defines the characteristics of end-to-end transport of data between one "edge" of the network and the other, ie, between sending and receiving end systems
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Datagram or Virtual Circuit
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Perhaps the most important abstraction provided by the network layer to the upper layers is whether or not the network layer uses virtual circuits (VCs) or not You may recall from 1 that a virtual-circuit packet network behaves much like a telephone network, which uses "real circuits" as opposed to "virtual circuits" There are three identifiable phases in a virtual circuit:
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VC setup During the setup phase, the sender contacts the network layer, specifies the receiver address, and waits for the network to setup the VC The network layer determines the path between sender and receiver, ie, the series of links and switches through which all packets of the VC will travel As discussed in 1, this typically involves updating tables in each of the packet switches in the path During VC setup, the network layer may also reserve resources (eg, bandwidth) along the path of the VC Data transfer Once theVC has been established, data can begin to flow along the VC Virtual circuit teardown This is initiated when the sender (or receiver) informs the network layer of its desire to terminate the VC The network layer will then typically inform the end system on the other side of the network of
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