Principles of congestion control in Java

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Principles of congestion control
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362 Approaches Toward Congestion Control
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In Section 37, we will examine TCP's specific approach towards congestion control in great detail Here, we identify the two broad approaches that are taken in practice towards congestion control, and discuss specific network architectures and congestion control protocols embodying these approaches At the broadest level, we can distinguish among congestion control approaches based on the whether or not the network layer provides any explicit assistance to the transport layer for congestion control purposes:
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End-end congestion control In an end-end approach towards congestion control, the network layer provides no explicit support to the transport layer for congestion control purposes Even the presence of congestion in the network must be inferred by the end systems based only on observed network behavior (eg, packet loss and delay) We will see in Section 37 that TCP must necessarily take this end-end approach towards congestion control, since the IP layer provides no feedback to the end systems regarding network congestion TCP segment loss (as indicated by a timeout or a triple duplicate acknowledgement) is taken as an indication of network congestion and TCP decreases its window size accordingly We also see that new proposals for TCP use increasing round-trip delay values as indicators of increased network congestion Network-assisted congestion control With network-assisted congestion control, network-layer components (ie, routers) provide explicit feedback to the sender regarding the congestion state in the network This feedback may be as simple as a single bit indicating congestion at a link This approach was taken in the early IBM SNA [Schwartz 1982] and DEC DECnet [Jain 1989] [Ramakrishnan 1990] architectures, was recently proposed for TCP/ IP networks [Floyd 1994] [Ramakrishnan 1998], and is used in ATM ABR congestion control as well, as discussed below More sophisticated network-feedback is also possible For example, one form of ATM ABR congestion control that we will study shortly allows a router to explictly inform the sender of the transmission rate it (the router) can support on an outgoing link
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For network-assisted congestion control, congestion information is typically fed back from the network to the sender in one of two ways, as shown in Figure 36-7 Direct feedback may be sent from a network router to the sender This form of notification typically takes the form of a choke packet (essentially saying, "I'm congested!") The second form of notification occurs when a router marks/updates a field in a packet flowing from sender to receiver to indiciate congestion Upon receipt of a marked packet, the receiver then notifies the sender of the congestion indication Note that this latter form of notification takes up to a full round-trip time
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Principles of congestion control
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Figure 36-7: Two feedback pathways for network-indicated congestion information
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363 ATM ABR Congestion Control
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Our detailed study of TCP congestion control in Section 37 will provide an in-depth case study of an end-end approach towards congestion control We conclude this section with a brief case study of the network-assisted congestion control mechanisms used in ATM ABR (Available Bit Rate) service ABR has been designed as an elastic data transfer service in a manner reminiscent of TCP When the network is underloaded, ABR service should be able to take advantage of the spare available bandwidth; when the network is congested, ABR service should throttle its transmission rate to some predetermined minimum transmititon rate A detailed tutorial on ATM ABR congestion control and traffic management is provided in [Jain 1996] Figure 36-8 shows the framework for ATM ABR congestion control In our discussion below we adopt ATM terminology (eg, using the term "switch" rather than "router," and the term "call" rather than "packet) With ATM ABR service, data cells are transmitted from a source to a destination through a series of intermediate switches Interpersed with the data cells are so-called RM (Resource Management) cells; we will see shortly that these RM cells can be used to convey congestion-related information among the hosts and switches When an RM cell is at a destination, it will be "turned around" and sent back to the sender (possibly after the destination has modified the contents of the RM cell) It is also possible for a switch to generate an RM cell itself and send this RM cell directly to a source RM cells can thus be used to provide both direct network feedback and network-feedback-via-the-receiver, as shown in Figure 36-8
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