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Since the discovery of acrylamide in cooked foods, the scienti c community has made extensive efforts to collect data on the concentrations of acrylamide found in foods. Several large databases of occurrence data have been compiled. European Union Member States, together with the European food industry, have produced a large database of acrylamide concentrations in foods (11). This live database (maintained by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements) represents the largest dataset of the occurrence of acrylamide, with concentrations of acrylamide being reported in a wide range of foods originating from across Europe. Acrylamide concentrations in over 7000 samples of different foods are reported. In 2002, the United States Food and Drugs Administration (US FDA) announced its action plan for acrylamide in food (12). One of the US FDA s aims was to monitor amounts of acrylamide in foods. Occurrence data were collected on an annual basis for a range of foods between 2002 and 2006. Other datasets include the World Health Organization s Summary Information and Global Health Trends database for acrylamide (13) and a number of smaller surveys by government organizations and independent researchers. Acrylamide has been detected in a wide range of heat-treated foods. It is found in both foods processed by manufacturers and foods that are cooked in the home. Generally, acrylamide is found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been cooked above 120 C; however, there are exceptions (see Table 2.1.1). It is interesting to note that studies have shown acrylamide is not formed in
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TABLE 2.1.1 Summary of reported concentrations of acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide ( g kg 1) Food group Potatoes Product Potato crisps Chips/French friesb Potato fritters/r sti potatoes Potatoes (raw) Bakery products and biscuits Gingerbread Bread Bread (toast) Breakfast cereals Crisp bread Olives Bottled prune juice Chocolate products Cocoa powderc Roasted coffeed Coffee substitute Coffee extract/powder Roasted tea Beer Infant biscuits/rusks Jarred/canned baby foods
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Minimum 117 59 42 <10 18 <10 <10 25 <10 <10 <10 53 <2 <10 45 80 87 <9 <6 <10 <10
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Maximum 4215 5200 2779 <50 3324 7834 397 1430 1649 2838 1925 267 826 909 935 5399 1188 567 <30 1060 121
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Fruits and vegetables Cocoa-based products Beverages
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Potato snack product that is thinly sliced and fried. Potato products that are more thickly sliced. c Cocoa powder for baking. d Analyzed as sold.
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foods that have been boiled or microwaved (5, 6). Table 2.1.1 lists some of the foods that have been found to contain acrylamide; it is clear that acrylamide can be formed in a wide range of foods, including dietary staples such as potatoes, cereals, and their products. The wide occurrence of acrylamide in foods presents a problem (that will be discussed further later): how can intake of acrylamide be minimized when it occurs in nutritionally important foods One of the intriguing characteristics of acrylamide contamination of foods is the variability in acrylamide concentrations; it is not unusual to nd a large variation in the amounts of acrylamide found in samples of the same products, and even between samples originating from the same batch. Figure 2.1.1 shows the variability in acrylamide concentrations in different samples of French fries. This variability becomes important when considering dietary exposure to acrylamide (see Section 2.1.6).
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Figure 2.1.1 Concentrations of acrylamide in French fries (data taken from the European Union acrylamide monitoring database).
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Shortly after acrylamide was rst reported in fried and baked foods (5), the Maillard reaction was proposed as the major route for acrylamide formation involving the thermal degradation of free asparagine in the presence of sugars (5, 14, 15). Experiments using 13C and 15N-labeled asparagine con rmed that the carbon skeleton of acrylamide and the nitrogen of the amide group derived from asparagine (16). The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction between amino compounds (principally amino acids) and reducing sugars, which provides much of the avor and color characteristics of heated foods (see References 17 and 18). The reaction has implications in other areas of the food industry, including the deterioration of food during processing and storage as well as the protective effect of the antioxidant properties of some Maillard reaction products. Thus, acrylamide formation in heated foods is closely linked to the generation of many of the essential characteristics of cooked foods. The initial step in the Maillard reaction is the formation of a Schiff base from the reaction of the amino nitrogen on the amino acid with the carbonyl group of a reducing sugar. This Schiff base can rearrange to form an Amadori compound, whose subsequent degradation yields important intermediates for the formation of avor and color compounds (Fig. 2.1.2). These intermediates include dicarbonyls, hydroxycarbonyls, and furans; further interaction with amino acids yields a wide range of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocycles
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