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in decisions that affect their lives, their property, and the things they value. Second, the goal of risk communication should not be to diffuse public concerns or avoid action. The goal should be to produce an informed public that is involved, interested, reasonable, thoughtful, solution-oriented, and collaborative. Guidelines: Demonstrate respect for the public by involving the community early, before important decisions are made. Clarify that decisions about risks will be based not only on the magnitude of the risk but on factors of concern to the public. Involve all parties that have an interest or a stake in the particular risk in question. Adhere to highest moral and ethical standards; recognize that people hold you accountable. 10.4.1.2 Rule 2. Listen to the Audience People are often more concerned about issues such as trust, credibility, control, bene ts, competence, voluntariness, fairness, empathy, caring, courtesy, and compassion than about mortality statistics and the details of quantitative risk assessment. If people feel or perceive that they are not being heard, they cannot be expected to listen. Effective risk communication is a two-way activity. Guidelines: Do not make assumptions about what people know, think, or want done about risks. Take the time to nd out what people are thinking; use techniques such as interviews, facilitated discussion groups, advisory groups, toll-free numbers, and surveys. Let all parties that have an interest or a stake in the issue be heard. Identify with your audience and try to put yourself in their place. Recognize people s emotions. Let people know that what they said has been understood, addressing their concerns as well as yours. Recognize the hidden agendas, symbolic meanings, and broader social, cultural, economic, or political considerations that often underlie and complicate the task of risk communication. 10.4.1.3 Rule 3. Be Honest, Frank, and Open Before a risk communication can be accepted, the messenger must be perceived as trustworthy and credible. Therefore, the rst goal of risk communication is to establish trust and credibility. Trust and credibility judgments are resistant to change once made. Short-term judgments of trust and credibility are based largely on verbal and nonverbal communications. Long-term judgments of trust and credibility are based largely on actions and performance. In communicating risk information, trust and credibility are a spokesperson s most precious assets. Trust and credibility are dif cult to obtain. Once lost, they are almost impossible to regain. Guidelines: State credentials; but do not ask or expect to be trusted by the public. If an answer is unknown or uncertain, express willingness to get back to the questioner with answers. Make corrections if errors are made. Disclose risk information as soon as possible (emphasizing appropriate reservations about reliability). Do not minimize or exaggerate the level of risk. Speculate only with great caution. If in doubt, lean toward sharing more information, not
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less or people may think something signi cant is being hidden. Discuss data uncertainties, strengths, and weaknesses including the ones identi ed by other credible sources. Identify worst-case estimates as such, and cite ranges of risk estimates when appropriate. 10.4.1.4 Rule 4. Coordinate and Collaborate with Other Credible Sources Allies can be effective in helping communicate risk information. Few things make risk communication more dif cult than con icts or public disagreements with other credible sources. Guidelines: Take time to coordinate all interorganizational and intraorganizational communications. Devote effort and resources to the slow, hard work of building bridges, partnerships, and alliances with other organizations. Use credible and authoritative intermediaries. Consult with others to determine who is best able to answer questions about risk. Try to issue communications jointly with other trustworthy sources such as credible university scientists, physicians, citizen advisory groups, trusted local of cials, and national or local opinion leaders. 10.4.1.5 Rule 5. Meet the Needs of the Media The media are a prime transmitter of information on risks. They play a critical role in setting agendas and in determining outcomes. The media are generally more interested in politics than in risk; more interested in simplicity than in complexity; and more interested in wrongdoing, blame, and danger than in safety. Guidelines: Be open with and accessible to reporters. Respect their deadlines. Provide information tailored to the needs of each type of media, such as sound bites, graphics, and other visual aids for television. Agree with the reporter in advance about the speci c topic of the interview; stick to the topic in the interview. Prepare a limited number of positive key messages in advance and repeat the messages several times during the interview. Provide background material on complex risk issues. Do not speculate. Say only those things that you are willing to have repeated: everything you say in an interview is on the record. Keep interviews short. Follow up on stories with praise or criticism, as warranted. Try to establish long-term relationships of trust with speci c editors and reporters. 10.4.1.6 Rule 6. Speak Clearly and with Compassion Technical language and jargon are useful as professional shorthand. But they are barriers to successful communication with the public. In low-trust, high-concern situations, empathy and caring often carry more weight than numbers and technical facts. Guidelines: Use clear, nontechnical language. Be sensitive to local norms, such as speech and dress. Strive for brevity, but respect people s information needs and offer to provide more information. Use graphics and other pictorial material to clarify messages. Personalize risk data; use stories, examples, and anecdotes that make technical data come alive. Avoid distant, abstract,
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