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4. Deodorization: for the removal of free fatty acids in case of a physical re ning process, off-taste and undesired odorous components, and pesticides. This nal re ning step promotes trans-isomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular if oils high in PUFAs are deodorized above 230 C (28). Fully re ned oils with less than 1% TFAs are now commonly available. However, the formation of TFAs decreases the nutritional quality of the oil. Cold-pressed, extra virgin, and virgin oils, e.g., olive, pumpkin seed, nut oils, and cocoa butter, can be consumed without further puri cation. It should be noted that this is only possible if the oil has been obtained from specially selected sources, ensuring product safety with respect to the aforementioned environmental pollutants, and under mild extraction conditions without using solvents. Storage, Handling, and Incorporation of Fats and Oils into Food Products After re ning, the oil is relatively stable and bland in avor. Precautions must to be taken during storage, handling, transport, and food production to avoid damage to the oil, which may result in the loss of quality, or even render the oil un t for human consumption. The causes of damage can be several, for example, due to (i) oxidative degradation (formation of rancid compounds), (ii) contamination with substances from the environment, (iii) unclean transport equipment/containers, and (iv) the deliberate adulteration with other oils. Lipid oxidation leads to chemical changes and consequently sensorial modi cation, with the ultimate result of food spoilage. Together with microbial spoilage and browning reactions, lipid oxidation is one of the three most important causes of food spoilage. The intrinsic nature of fats and oils that causes lipid oxidation cannot be changed, but degradation can be signi cantly slowed down by applying the following measures during handling, storing, transport, and incorporation into food products:
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Minimize contact with and absorption of air (oxygen). Avoid excessive moisture (risk of hydrolysis, free fatty acids are more prone to oxidation, than corresponding triglycerides). Avoid contact with, or at least minimize the content of pro-oxidants (mainly the oxidation catalysts iron and copper). Keep fats and oils in the dark (UV light may trigger photo-oxidation). Keep storage time and temperature to a minimum. Avoid excessive exposure to elevated temperatures. Avoid unnecessary agitation. Select an oil suitable for the application. Add antioxidant(s).
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To provide the best possible protection against oxidative degradation, the antioxidant must be added to the oil at the end of the re ning process by the oil manufacturer. The type of antioxidant or mixture of antioxidants to be used depends on the oil type, the application, and also the legislation of the country where the product will be sold. Further information on oil storage, handling, and transport is given by List et al. (29). Lipid Oxidation Oxidative damage of lipids is caused by one of the most complex reaction chains occurring in food products. It occurs in the presence of catalysts, such as heat, light, metals, enzymes, metalloproteins, and microorganisms. Besides the development of off- avors, which is the main reason for food spoilage, lipid oxidation can also cause the loss of other essential nutrients, such as amino acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and other bioactives. The following deterioration reactions occur in lipids: (i) autoxidation, (ii) photo-oxidation, (iii) thermal oxidation, (iv) enzymatic oxidation, and (v) polymerization. Autoxidation, an autocatalytic reaction, is the most common oxidative deterioration. Autoxidation is initiated and propagated by free radical reactions and occurs via a series of chain reactions (see References 30 and 31 for details). If oxidation occurs, only a small amount of the lipid phase is typically affected. Lipid oxidation is classically described as a three-step chain reaction: 1. Initiation: the formation of free radicals. 2. Propagation: the reaction of free radicals with reactive oxygen species (singlet oxygen), and the formation of further free radicals, which will also react with oxygen. Hydroperoxides have been identi ed as primary products of autoxidation. 3. Termination: the formation of non-radical products, and the decomposition of primary into high sensory impact secondary oxidation products, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, volatile organic acids, and epoxy compounds. This decomposition phase involves a large number of interrelated reactions of intermediates. Due to the intrinsic nature of oxidative deterioration reactions, lipid oxidation products initially develop slowly. The reactions then accelerate during storage, rendering the food product inedible due to the presence of rancidity (30). Primary oxidation products in oils and in complex food matrices are dif cult to assess as they cannot be detected by sensory analysis. They can only be measured by chemical analytical techniques. The peroxide value (iodometric titration) is commonly accepted as a method to assess the initial state of oxidation in bulk oils. Many different analytical methods have been proposed for measuring the advanced state of oxidation in oils, and even more in food products (see References 30 and 31 for details). Secondary oxidation products are detectable by smell and taste at very low concentrations, often at part-per-
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