FOOD PROCESSING AND MAJOR BENEFITS in .NET

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FOOD PROCESSING AND MAJOR BENEFITS
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range of 0.10 to 0.40, passing thus through the critical region. The degree of protein damage is then determined mainly by the drying technology and the drying conditions. Freeze-drying and spray drying under mild conditions usually result in foods with little formation of MRPs (lysine blockage of 0 10%), whereas technologies such as oven baking and roller drying may afford products with substantial browning, resulting in lysine blockage of 30 70% (15, 16). Extrusion cooking can be conducted in such a way that the Maillard reaction is less pronounced than, for instance, in roller drying. In a set of trials, infant cereals based on wheat or rice our and soy our as main protein source have been either roller-dried or extruded. The wheat our was partly hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, to obtain increasing amounts of reducing sugars and thus vary the severity of the Maillard reaction. As illustrated in Fig. 9.1, reactive lysine and PER are well correlated. In certain raw foods, protein availability is reduced due to the presence of antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors or phytates. Hydrothermal treatments are very ef cient to reduce the activity of protease inhibitors, and processes such as fermentation, germination, and soaking may reduce the phytate level. Chitra et al. (17) have shown that germination reduced the phytic acid content of a variety of beans and peas by 40 60%, whereas fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26 39%. Both germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility. Lectins (haemagglutinins) are proteins or glycoproteins that may induce a hormonal imbalance and
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130 Roller drying 120 Extrusion
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100 PER 90 80 70 60 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 Reactive lysine (g/16 g N)
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Figure 9.1 Relationship between reactive lysine and protein ef ciency ratio (PER) in a soy cereal product.
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FOOD PROCESSING AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS
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in uence the gut metabolism. They are found in soy and lentils and are also inactivated by heat treatment (18). 9.2.1.2 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main constituents of cereals, but also fruits and to some extent of vegetables. They account for about 55% of the energy intake in a balanced diet, and as much as 80% in some countries. Carbohydrates need to be broken down to simple sugars for the body to be able to absorb them. Many carbohydrates, and in particular simple sugars, are well digested in their raw state without any processing as the digestive enzymes are capable to reduce them to monosaccharides. Native starch from most sources is quite easily digested. Raw potato starch, however, is indigestible because it is encapsulated within the starch granules, which hinders the accessibility of digestive enzymes (19). When potatoes are cooked, the starch granules are gelatinized and the starch becomes digestible. It has been shown (20) that with any of the standard processing means (boiling, mashing, baking, frying), less than 7% of the starch resisted digestion. On the other hand, processing of starch and subsequent retrogradation is likely to form resistant starch. Resistant starch is starch that resists digestion in the small intestine. In fact, resistant starches have been de ned as the sum of starch and products of starch digestion not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy individuals (21). In many processing systems, a small amount of resistant starch is formed involuntarily. However, as it is considered dietary ber, companies have developed processes to manufacture products with a high content of resistant starch (22). The primary goal of food processing is to achieve optimal physical and organoleptic properties. With respect to starch, this can mean much more than simple gelatinization, and depends very much on the process. Cooking by steam injection and subsequent roller drying will result in the full development of viscosity and is the process of choice for the production of infant cereals. In order to obtain a pap with a well-de ned nutrient and caloric density, the starch can be broken down by the use of amylolytic enzymes (alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase). This will reduce the viscosity of the pap and enhance the sweetness without using added sugars, and also assures easy digestion. The roller-drying process is carried out at dry matter levels of 20% to 50%, in which starch is therefore fully hydrated. Extruders are typically run at much higher dry matter levels of up to 85% or more, and in addition, high pressure and shear are exerted. Starch therefore undergoes rather a melting than a gelatinization transition. Also, the starch molecules are disintegrated and broken down by the high shear. The resulting carbohydrate pro le depends on the extruder con guration and the extrusion conditions, in particular the water content, pressure, and temperature. This will then also affect the product properties, such as viscosity, solubility, and so on. This is illustrated in Fig. 9.2, which shows typical carbohydrate pro les of extruded, roller-dried, and partly hydrolyzed wheat ours: the roller-dried our contains mainly amylose and amylopectin, as would native wheat, whereas in the extruded our, most of
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