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TABLE 9.1 The major nutritional bene ts of thermal treatment of food. Formation of
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aroma and taste-active compounds (novel) antioxidants chemoprotective compounds digestibility bioavailability of nutrients microbial load natural toxins enzyme inhibitors
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tions initiated by the condensation of a reducing carbohydrate with an amino compound, usually an amino acid or protein moiety (7). Depending on the nature of the food material and severity of processing conditions (mainly thermal input), this complex cascade is the source of literally thousands of individual chemical compounds, termed collectively Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The sequence of changes that comprise the Maillard pathway can be broadly discerned into the early and advanced stages. The former constitutes the formation of the Amadori rearrangement product (frequently abbreviated ARP), and highlights the initial stage of the Maillard reaction. The advanced stage involves the degradation of the Amadori compound via different routes as outlined by Hodge (8), the main pathway leading to unstable deoxysones by elimination of water, which in turn undergo secondary reactions leading to advanced MRPs. The various pathways depend on the pH of the reaction milieux, the basicity of the amine attached to the sugar, and the thermal input. Different pathways involve numerous steps, which lead to the formation of a broad spectrum of volatile or soluble substances. Contributing to the nal stage of the Maillard reaction and responsible for the brown color are polyfunctional macromolecules called melanoidins, with masses up to 100,000 Daltons (9). Their formation during thermal processing has been studied in model experiments and is apparently free radical driven through the formation of a transient Maillard intermediate named Crosspy, which in fact represents a protein-bound pyrazinium radical cation that rapidly polymerizes to nally afford melanoidins (10). There is a paucity of knowledge of the physiological relevance of MRPs at the typical concentrations at which they occur in our diet. In fact, many reports on biologically active MRPs have been published in the past two to three decades, and several of the studies have shown bene cial chemoprotective properties of the compounds either in vitro or in vivo, for example, by modulating the activity of detoxifying enzymes in the body (11, 12). For the food industry, a main goal of research is to elucidate the key pathways that lead to bioactive Maillard-related substances, and to modulate these in terms of
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providing foods with additional bene ts such as improved aroma, taste, and textural properties. 9.2.1 Nutrients
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Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in ASP.NET applications. Proteins and Amino Acids Proteins are complex molecules with a high molecular weight and any processing is likely to modify their physical and chemical properties. One obvious aim of food processing is to increase the palatability of the raw material. At the same time, processing will also affect the nutritional value. With respect to proteins, both positive and negative effects are observed: improved digestibility and availability is obtained by denaturing the original protein structure, but also by destroying antinutritional substances that might be present, such as trypsin inhibitors. On the other hand, processing can also induce the reduction of the protein quality. The most common case is of course the well-known Maillard reaction that involves reducing sugars and amino acids as described earlier in this chapter. MRPs have a number of desired properties. In cereal-based foods, they confer the golden color and avor of biscuits, and some intermediate MRPs have antioxidant properties that may increase the shelf life of foods. Bread crust is a good example of positive health bene ts of MRPs. A study has shown that extracts of rye bread crust exhibited antioxidative properties in in vitro test systems, correlating positively with the degree of browning (13). The active structures involved are MRPs and more precisely condensates of the carbohydrate degradation product acetylformoin and N- -acetyl-carboxymethyl-Llysine, the product being termed simplistically by the authors as pronyl-L-lysine (13). This substance exhibits an antioxidative capacity vefold higher than that of ascorbic acid, and its concentration is related to the bread-baking time. On the other hand, research has shown that bread crust contains higher amounts of undesired compounds such as acrylamide and 3-MCPD (see s 2.1 and 2.6, respectively). The sources of reducing sugars in the Maillard reaction are manifold: milk, maltodextrins, malt extract, fruits, honey, and so on, but the sugars can also be formed during the process, e.g., the fermentation of bread dough. The reaction partner is typically the cereal protein, or any other protein source from an ingredient. In cereal products, lysine is usually the amino acid limiting the protein quality. Whereas milk protein contains about 8 g lysine/16 g N, this value is in the range of 2 2.5 for wheat and corn, and up to 3.5 for rice or oats. A standard method to measure the protein quality is the PER (protein ef ciency ratio), based on rat feeding trials. For cereal products, however, it is much easier to measure the reactive (available) lysine, as there is a good relationship between this value and the PER (14). The Maillard reaction is fastest at a water activity (Aw) of 0.70 0.50, i.e., not during cooking but rather during the drying step. Typically, most cereal products (e.g., breakfast or infant cereals, snacks) are rst submitted to a heat treatment well above an Aw of 0.8, and are then dried down to an Aw in the
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