PROCESSING CONTAMINANTS: RISKS AND CONTROL MEASURES in Visual Studio .NET

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PROCESSING CONTAMINANTS: RISKS AND CONTROL MEASURES
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its evaluation, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) viewed acrylamide as a human health concern and recommended that the efforts to reduce acrylamide in food continue (13). The formation of acrylamide is linked to the well-known Maillard reaction, a browning process that occurs during the heat treatment of food and which contributes to taste, aroma, and color. During this process, reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose react with amino acids to form acrylamide. Foods that are rich in carbohydrate and amino acids, particularly free asparagine, and are processed under conditions of high temperature and low moisture have the highest potential to form acrylamide. Examples are potato crisps, fried potatoes, breakfast cereals, biscuits/bakery wares, coffee, and coffee surrogates (beverages based on chicory and/or roasted cereal grains). Acrylamide is also present in staple food such as bread, but in low amounts. However, as bread is a common part of the daily diet, it may nevertheless contribute signi cantly to the intake of acrylamide. Since the discovery of acrylamide in food in April 2002 (14), considerable research has been undertaken by industry and governments to understand the mechanism of formation and nd ways to mitigate its formation. In some areas, signi cant progress has been made, for example, for French fries (15, 16). However, for some other products such as coffee, the mitigation of acrylamide formation has proven to be more dif cult since any change to the roasting process has signi cant impact on the organoleptic properties and acceptability of the product (17, 18). Recently, a commercial enzyme has been developed that may be used to reduce acrylamide formation in certain cerealbased products. The technique entails the addition of the enzyme asparaginase, which speci cally converts asparagine to aspartic acid (19). Table 7.1 summarizes various control measures for acrylamide that can be applied in food manufacturing or in food preparation. For further information, the reader is referred to the CIAA Acrylamide Toolbox that provides a consolidated overview on control measures for acrylamide in different food products (18). For more detailed information on acrylamide, refer to 2.1. 7.2.2 Chloropropanols
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Chloropropanols, in particular 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP, are compounds that are of concern due to their carcinogenicity. They have also shown to be genotoxic in vitro, although this has not been con rmed by in vivo studies as far as 3MCPD is concerned. On the other hand, with regard to 1,3-DCP, JECFA concluded that this compound is genotoxic in vivo and consequently, no acceptable safe level can be established (20). Chloropropanols have multiple sources and their formation follows different and complex pathways. Originally, when discovered in 1978, they were associated with acid-hydrolyzed vegetable proteins (acid-HVPs) used as avoring in soups, gravy mixes, bouillon cubes and in particular, in soy sauce and
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TABLE 7.1 Toolbox compartment Recipe Not applicable Blanch potato strips in hot water for a longer period of time to remove reducing sugars Cut thicker strips Processing Final preparation
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Control measures for acrylamide in selected products.
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568 Avoid adding reducing sugars in the recipe The addition of calcium salts may reduce the formation of AA Not applicable Control the baking time and temperature to prevent excessive browning in the crust Follow on-pack instructions Control the temperature and time of nal cooking When cooking smaller amounts, reduce cooking time When frying, do not cook >175 C Aim for a light golden color When toasting bread, aim for a light golden color Not applicable Non-fermented crispbread: control process temp. and oven speed Control the nal moisture content Asparaginase is a tool for certain biscuit and cereal applications Do not overbake Do not overbake or over-toast Manage the toasting to achieve a uniform color for the product Not applicable Replacement of ammonium bicarbonate with other raising agents If possible avoid using fructose Minimize reducing sugars in the cooking phase Consider the contribution of other inclusions, e.g., roasted nuts and dried fruits Not applicable
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