ISSUES OF PROCESS TOXICANTS PRESENT IN SMALL AMOUNTS IN FOODS in VS .NET

Generate Code 128 Code Set C in VS .NET ISSUES OF PROCESS TOXICANTS PRESENT IN SMALL AMOUNTS IN FOODS
ISSUES OF PROCESS TOXICANTS PRESENT IN SMALL AMOUNTS IN FOODS
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cal knowledge gaps and research needs. Several common themes and conclusions were identi ed during the workshop with a publication to be prepared on the risk prioritization framework concepts that emerged from the workshop discussions. A second workshop was held (November 2008) to bring together experts who are working on tools for dietary exposure estimates to discuss approaches and develop recommendations for using exposure estimates in a framework for prioritizing risks associated with chemical and microbial contaminants in food. The outcomes of these efforts and discussions will be of critical importance to how the results of detecting and determining very low concentrations (i.e., ppb and less) of process contaminants in foods will be interpreted in terms of risks to human health and how they are potentially regulated. It must be remembered that just because a toxicant is present in low amounts in foods does not mean that it will not be a signi cant contributor to exposure in an individual s diet. As an example, acrylamide is present in low amounts in coffee or bread. However, since both of these are consumed in signi cant amounts in the daily diet of many individuals in some countries, they end up being in the top ve or so foods/drinks in terms of daily sources of exposure to (intake of) acrylamide in those nations. 1.5.2 Risk Bene t Considerations
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A further important aspect to be considered also in the mitigation of process toxicants is risk bene t. Changes made to the nutritional pro le of a product may negatively impact the inherent bene cial properties of the food. For example, the removal of whole grain accepted to deliver a nutritional bene t will result in a product with relatively lower amounts of acrylamide. However, the current assessment of such measures is mainly subjective, and lacking is an appropriate risk bene t framework that allows legitimate comparisons to be made. As noted by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), a risk bene t analysis should not be performed as a routine procedure but only applied in those cases where an impact on public health outcomes can be expected (31). Such an activity has been started by ILSI Europe and models have already been established, comparing for example, the bene ts of eating sh that are rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and a bene cial role in in ammatory conditions such as arthritis) versus dioxin and methylmercury that may accumulate in certain sh (associated with risk of cancer development and developmental changes in the fetus) (32). Similarly, a recent project comparing the bene ts associated with the heat processing of foods (reduced microbial spoilage, extended product shelf life) versus the risks (formation of acrylamide and other process toxicants) has been initiated within the frame of the BRAFO project (Bene t-Risk Analysis of Foods). The main goal is to develop a framework that quantitatively compares human health risks and bene ts of foods and food components, using common scales of measurement such as the indices Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) or Quality Adjusted Life
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INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PROCESS TOXICANTS
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Years (QUALYs) (see 11). Recently, a case study on risk bene t considerations of mitigation measures of acrylamide in potatoes, cereals, and coffee has been completed and published (33). Such studies have the ultimate goal of facilitating the decision-making process in public health nutrition.
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1.6 1.6.1
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OUTLOOK Research Needs
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Research needs in process toxicants were recently highlighted in several international scienti c meetings. Worthwhile mentioning is the symposium organized by the German DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, German Research Foundation) Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) in September 2005 on the potential health bene ts and risks of thermal processing of foods, which summarized the major research needs. The SKLM emphasized the importance of further study of the risk bene ts of foods as well as speci c needs related to the substances per se. In this context, four compounds or compound classes were selected, i.e., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, furan, and 3-MCPD (34). Similarly, the UK Food Standards Agency convened a stakeholder meeting to discuss the research commissioned by the Agency on food process contaminants in April 2005 (35) and to share the progress made in the different projects on surveys and minimization of risk. The substances of concern were chloropropanols (including 3-MCPD), ethyl carbamate, and acrylamide. Recently, EC-DG SANCO and the CIAA (European Food and Drink Federation) organized a joint workshop on acrylamide in March 2006, pulling together the latest ndings from academic and industry research (36), and integrating this into the CIAA Acrylamide Toolbox, which is the reference for the most promising avenues and achievements to reduce acrylamide in the main concerned food categories (37). Soon thereafter, a joint workshop on furan in food was hosted by the EC-DG SANCO/EFSA/DG JRC to update the latest knowledge pertaining to analysis and formation/mitigation of furan in food (36). Research in all these areas is progressing at a rapid pace and these selected examples show that process toxicants have in the past few years gained signi cant attention on a global scale in terms of potential human health risk.
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