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Water Sucrose 40% Sebacate n-Hexane
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Figure 5.5 Adiabatic heat of compression in water, sucrose solution with 40% solid content, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (trivial name sebacate) and n-hexane (26).
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TABLE 5.1 Adiabatic heat of compression in different food systems.a Substances at 25 C Water Mashed potato Tomato salsa 2%-fat milk Salmon Chicken fat Beef fat Olive oil Soy oil
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Temperature increase per 100 MPa [ C] 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 4.5 6.3 From 8.7 to <6.3b From 9.1 to <6.2b
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According to reference 28. Substances exhibited decreasing T as pressure increased.
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Mainly practical measurements can demonstrate the differences of the adiabatic heating in real food systems (Table 5.1). The main ingredient in most food is water and thus the thermodynamic properties of water can be utilized to estimate the temperature increase upon compression of high-moisture foods. The compression heating in fatcontaining foods could be up to three times higher than for water (28). In a situation in which organic solvents or oils are used as pressure-transmitting medium and the food matrix has high water content, a difference in compression temperature increase between the food and the medium would occur. The transfer of heat from the pressure-transmitting medium into the product could be utilized to increase the temperature of the food system during and after the adiabatic heating (19).
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The DFG-Senate Commission for Food Safety (SKLM) considered the highpressure treatment of foodstuffs already in 1998, and published a further opinion in 2004 with an extended product range (29). Commonly, chemical reactions with a negative reaction and activation volume are dominant under high pressure, because of the principle of Le Chatelier and Braun, which states that when a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change, the system will shift in order to minimize that change. Examples are dissociation reactions in water or buffer systems as well as formations of covalent bonds by cycloadditions. These cycloadditions of appropriate reaction partners were not observed under realistic production conditions (30, 31). Radical formation is inhibited by pressure and the partial volumes and the reactivity are in uenced by interactions between the dissolved species and the solvent (32 34). 5.3.1 Vitamins Published literature on the effects of HPP on nutrient composition indicates that the effects are minimal, and compare favorably with classic food processing treatments such as pasteurization or sterilization. Most of the detected changes were observed in model or buffer systems. The food matrix has a protective effect and has to be considered in this ease. Water-soluble vitamins, e.g. vitamin C, the vitamins B1, B2, B6, and folic acid, were not or were less affected by high-pressure processing. No signi cant effects by high pressure on fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and provitamin A (35, 36), as well as chlorophyll at low temperatures, were observed (37 39). 5.3.2 Lipids
The review of available published literature suggests that very high-pressure treatment could possibly result in lipid oxidation. Increases in peroxidized lipids or bioactive peptides could pose health risks, and may cause quality deterioration of food products. In one study, increased lipid oxidation in pressurized meat was reported at 800 MPa heated at 19 C for 20 min. Pressures of around 600 MPa per 3-min treatment are not expected to impact the nutritional safety or quality of ready-to-eat meats. Thus, contradictory statements exist regarding the oxidation of fats in foodstuffs through high-pressure treatment. The main problem is that the reported changes are often not clearly distinguished from changes occurring during storage (40, 41). A lot of parameters such as pH value, water content, fatty acid spectrum, degree of oxidation before pressure treatment, pro- and antioxidants as well as residual enzymatic activities have an impact on the pressure-induced changes and the progress of oxidation during storage. However, proposals for treatment of foods at higher pressure should be considered on a case-by-case basis.