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Adam Becalski1 and Patricia Nyman2
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Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Address Locator 2203D, 251 Sir F. Banting driveway, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada 2 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
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INTRODUCTION
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Benzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that has caused cancer in workers exposed to high concentrations in workplace air (1). It is used in the manufacture of other chemicals, detergents, and plastics, and is released into the environment from gasoline vapors and the burning of fossil fuels. Several reviews brie y mention the occurrence of benzene and other VOCs in foods (2 6). Benzene can occur in food as a result of processed-induced changes resulting from high-temperature chemical transformations, ionizing radiation, and from the reaction of added or naturally occurring precursors. In the absence of good manufacturing practices, benzene also can be introduced into food as an environmental contaminant or as a contaminant of food additives or avors. One or more of these sources potentially could be associated with benzene found in food. Roasting foods at high temperatures can cause the pyrolysis of organic matter, resulting in benzene formation. This occurs either from the recombination of intermediates or by the degradation of compounds containing a benzene moiety such as phenylalanine. Benzene also can be introduced into food as a result of smoking or grilling over an open ame, especially with wood or
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Process-Induced Food Toxicants: Occurrence, Formation, Mitigation, and Health Risks, Edited by Richard H. Stadler and David R. Lineback Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Benzene: At a Glance
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Benzene is used in the manufacture of chemicals, detergents, and plastics and released into the environment from gasoline vapors and the burning of fossil fuels. Several analytical techniques have been developed to measure benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in food, the most predominant being static and dynamic purge and trap headspace coupled to GC/MS or GC/ ame ionization detection (FID). Occurs in very low amounts (low g/kg) in a wide range of foods such as meat products, poultry, sh, fruit, roasted coffee, and nuts. Surveys in foods and beverages have been conducted in a few countries including the USA, UK, Italy, South Korea, Australia, and Canada. Three main pathways can lead to benzene formation in food under certain conditions, i.e., (i) thermal decomposition and rearrangement of precursors, (ii) as a byproduct of irradiation, and (iii) from the combination of benzoate and ascorbic acid in the presence of trace metal ions and oxygen. Benzene concentrations in food are generally very low. Mitigation measures by industry have focussed on beverages, and guidelines have been published that address key factors, viz. the combination of benzoate and ascorbic acid, the use of chelating agents and nutritive sweeteners, storage conditions, and shelf life. Benzene formation from the decomposition of phenylalanine can be minimized by grilling and roasting foods at lower temperatures and/or minimizing the dose of ionizing radiation. The uptake of benzene in grilled fatty foods and concentration from charcoal and wood emissions can be reduced depending on the choice of fuel. Benzene is a carcinogen that causes tumors in rodents at multiple sites and leukemia in humans. Inhalation of contaminated air is the primary route of non-occupational benzene exposure for non-smokers, and mainstream cigarette smoke is the primary route for smokers. Dietary exposure to benzene is not considered a signi cant pathway (approx. 1.5% of the total exposure for non-smokers). No regulatory limits have been established for benzene in food and beverages Guidance levels for drinking water vary from country to country, but most are within the same order of magnitude (1 10 ppb). Many countries consider their guidance level for benzene in drinking water as an appropriate standard for beverages and ask manufacturers to reformulate or withdraw products that exceed these amounts. Factors governing the amount of benzene formed in complex matrices containing benzoate and ascorbic acid.
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