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the following four diets: (i) frozen control (FC), canned in vacuo and frozen; (ii) thermally processed (TP) control, canned in vacuo and thermally processed at 115.6 C; (iii) GAM containing enzyme-inactivated chicken meat, canned in vacuo and sterilized by exposure to gamma radiation at 20 15 C from a cobalt-60 source, giving a minimum absorbed dose of 46 kGy and a maximum dose of 68 kGy; and (iv) ELE containing the enzyme-inactivated chicken meat, vacuum-packed in 26-mm-thick slices in laminated foil packages and sterilized by exposure to 10-MeV electrons at 25 15 C, giving an average dose of 58 kGy. Another diet, known as CLD, was used as the negative or husbandry control diet serving as a carrier for the chicken meat in the other four diets (34, 38). The diets produced underwent (i) nutritional studies, (ii) teratology studies, (iii) chronic toxicity, oncogenicity, and multigeneration reproductive studies, and (iv) genetic toxicity studies, and the following is a brief summary of the experimental work and results reported in the review by Thayer et al. (38). The nutritional studies examined the protein ef ciency ratios (PER) for rats and mice at the same time evaluating possible antivitamin effects of irradiated meat. ANRC casein was added to the reference standard diet (CLD) for evaluation of PER. Results showed that all the diets containing the chicken meat had higher PER values than the casein standard and were not signi cantly affected by any of the ways the chicken had been processed. Genetic toxicology studies of the diets were undertaken using a number of methods. A modi ed protocol of the Ames test (Salmonella-microsomal mutagenicity assay) was used employing Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, which detects mutagens causing base-pair substitutions, and S. typhimurium TA1537, TA1538, TA100, and TA98, which detect various kinds of frameshift mutagens. Results from the studies led to the conclusion that the manner in which the chicken was processed, either irradiated or nonirradiated, did not affect the response of the Salmonella-microsomal mutagenicity test system to known mutagens. In addition, no positive results were observed for any of the chicken diets in the absence of the known mutagens. Sex-linked recessive lethal mutations were also tested in a series of studies using Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. None of the four chicken meat diets produced evidence of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations, although it was observed that there was a signi cant reduction in the egg hatchability of cultures of D. melanogaster reared on the gamma-irradiated chicken meat diet (GAM). Despite additional testing carried out to con rm these results, it was concluded that although the irradiated chicken meat was not mutagenic in the test system used, the number of offspring from D. melanogaster-fed diets containing chicken was consistently reduced, particularly those containing irradiated chicken. The cause of the observed reduction in the offspring of Drosophila or its biological signi cance as related to humans is not known. A series of teratology studies were undertaken with mice, hamsters, rats, and rabbits with pregnant females being exposed to the test meats as well as
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positive control substances, these being all-trans retinoic acid for mice, hamsters and rats, and thalidomide for rabbits. Using in vivo studies, it was found that the chicken diets, either irradiated or nonirradiated, induced a teratogenic response when consumed by the pregnant animals. However, when the positive controls were administered to the animals, there were signi cant incidences of resorbed embryos and congenital malformations in both soft and skeletal body tissues. Consumption of any of the four processed chicken meat diets did not induce signi cant incidences of resorbed embryos or congenital malformations. In these studies undertaken at Raltech, chronic feeding studies were conducted in mice and beagle dogs with the ve test diets being provided to the animals ad libitum. The ndings of these studies showed that all ve diets supported the growth of the beagles to maturity, although it was noted that the actual body weight and consumption in dogs fed on the negative or husbandry control diet (CLD) were signi cantly lower than for the beagles consuming the diets containing chicken meat. Moreover, there were no obvious signs of diet-related toxicity in any of the animals, although it was found that the dogs fed GAM diets had lower body weights throughout adulthood than males fed the FC diet. Many of the FC-fed dogs became obese thereby indicating that the difference in body weight between the FC- and GAM-fed animals was not evidence of toxicity. Additionally, there was no evidence of any oncogenic effect from any of the diets. The ability to breed was found to be greater in the female beagles, which consumed the GAM diet, than in dogs fed the other diets and there was no evidence of reproductive toxicity. In the experimental work carried out on mice, the only impaired reproduction noted was for comparatively decreased fertility in mice fed the TP diet as there were no signi cant differences observed in fertility between mice fed the GAM, ELE, or FC diets. No signi cant differences in frequency of stillbirths, numbers of viable offspring born, and survival to weaning were observed when groups of mice fed the irradiated chicken meat were compared with mice consuming the FC diet. Mice that consumed the CLD diet were found to have lower mean body weights throughout life than those that ate the diets containing the chicken meat with many mice becoming obese when the FC, TP, GAM, and ELE diets were consumed. Although the mean body weights of the female mice consuming the chicken diets did not differ signi cantly, it was observed that male mice fed GAM had lower body weights than those fed the other meat diets. The latter observation was attributed to the decreased survival among heavier weight animals in the GAM group, although overall survival for the male mice was not signi cantly different among the four meat-containing diets. The differences in survival between the CLD group of mice and those fed the meat diets were probably caused by non-neoplastic disease processes such as myocardial degeneration and cardiomyopathy, which were common in the mice consuming the meat diets, the incidence being highest in the GAM group and lowest in the TP group for both sexes. Immune complex glomerulonephropathy was the most common renal lesion, with the incidence being lowest in the
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