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soup (20, 22, 54). Spices showed contaminations with NDMA (mean: 0.3 g/kg, max: 1.4 g/kg), NPYR (mean: 1.75 g/kg, max: 29 g/kg), and NPIP (mean: 1.8 g/kg, max: 23 g/kg) (22). Peak contaminations with NPIP and NPYR were found in ground pepper, also containing high amounts of respective precursor amines such as pyrrolidine (41 91 mg/kg) and piperidine (535 642 mg/kg) (15). NDMA (max: 16 g/kg) and NPYR (max: 6.1 g/kg) were also found in dried chilies and in dried chili powder (56). In single cases of fermented vegetables (Chinese cabbage and radish), NDMA (up to 13 g/kg), NPIP (up to 14 g/kg), and NPYR (up to 96 g/kg) have been reported (57). In a study investigating Brassica oleracea from India, NDMA (15 16 g/kg), NPYR (19 25 g/kg), NPRO (2.1 3.5 g/kg), and NTCA (0.7 g/kg) were found (58). 4.1.2.1.6 Human Exposure to N-Nitrosamines by Uptake of Food Results from a series of studies estimating the daily exposure per person with volatile N-nitrosamines from food in different countries are summarized in Table 4.1.5. NDMA is the most common N-nitrosamine found in food and thus contributes primarily to the total human exposure with volatile N-nitrosamines. Table 4.1.5 also shows that the mean exposure to volatile N-nitrosamines calculated for Germany in 1980 (1.1 g/person/day) had been reduced to 0.2 0.3 g/kg in 1990, obviously as a result of mitigation measures such as, in particular, the improved kilning technology for barley malt production (14). Other mitigation measures also contributed, e.g., reduction of nitrite content in curing salt or addition of nitrosation inhibitors such as ascorbic acid or tocopherols. For most industrialized countries, the estimated average present day intake of volatile N-nitrosamines is approximately 0.2 0.3 g/person, respectively 3.3 5 ng/kg body weight (14, 20, 65). Beer, meat products, and sh are considered the main sources of exposure. However, other nonvolatile N-nitroso compounds have not been identi ed yet. By using a summary approach detecting the apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC), the daily exposure to nonvolatile N-nitroso compounds was estimated to be 10 100 g/person (16, 65, 66) with a substantial contribution to this exposure attributed to beer and bacon consumption (66, 67). It has to be underlined that most nonvolatile N-nitroso compounds identi ed in food are biologically not active. It is assumed that the fraction of characterized nonvolatile N-nitroso compounds is approximately 10% of the total ATNC content (16).
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4.1.3 TOXICOLOGY, TOXICOKINETICS Preformed and endogenously formed N-nitrosamines are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of absorption varies for different Nnitrosamines and for different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Nnitrosamines are distributed by the bloodstream and are rapidly metabolized in the liver, particularly at low concentrations (68). Most of the N-nitrosamines
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TABLE 4.1.5 Development of estimated daily exposure to preformed nonvolatile N-nitrosamines with food in different countries (mg/person/day), re ecting the effect of introducing mitigation measures from the seventies to the nineties. NPYR + NPIP ns
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Referring to NDMA. Results from a 24-h duplicate portion study. c Including other volatile N-nitrosamines. d Without beer. e Estimated 1992 with data from 1980. m, males; w, women; ns, not speci ed.