BIOGENIC AMINES in Visual Studio .NET

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are other methods using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with lampinduced uorescence detection (150), conductometric detection (151), and laser-induced uorescence (LIF) detection (152). Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MECC) methods were developed for the separation of biogenic amines in foods labeled with N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (153), uorescein thiocarbamate derivatives (154), N-substituted benzamides (73, 155), AQC (156), or benzoyl chloride (157). A new methodology was developed to separate and determine amines by cyclodextrin-modi ed CE with UV or LIF detection (158). GC is considerably less applied for the quanti cation of biogenic amines. This is probably due to the extensive pre-puri cation methods that are necessary to obtain derivatizable, amine-containing extracts from biological materials. However, there are some useful GC methods developed for the determination of biogenic amines in food (159 161). TLC is a simple and rapid procedure, considering that several samples can be run in parallel on the same plate. Depending on the sorbent layer adsorption, partition or ion-exchange methods can be used for separating biogenic amines by TLC (162 164). Ionic compounds such as biogenic amines are often better separated by IEC following post-column colorimetry with ninhydrin, using the equipment for amino acid analysis (68, 165 167) or conductivity detection using HPLC equipped with an ion-exchange column (117). Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) followed by PAD was also successfully applied for biogenic amine analysis (168). 3.2.3.3 Rapid Methods Applied for Biogenic Amine Determination
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Besides the modern food analytical techniques (chromatography, electrophoresis), biochemical methods such as different types of biosensors, enzymebased sensors, and immunosensors have been developed, with the aim to provide a rapid means of detecting biogenic amines in food. The control of food quality and freshness is of growing interest for both consumer and food industry. The conventionally used techniques are expensive, slow, need well-trained operators, and in most cases required timeconsuming sample pretreatment. Food industry needs simple, nondestructive screening methods that correlate information available on the product with the stage of freshness. Biosensors consist of a molecular recognition element (such as enzyme, antibody, receptor, or microorganisms) and a chemical or physical transducer (electrochemical, mass, optical, and thermal) (169). Several biosensors have been described so far to offer rapid screening methods for industrial food quality testing (169 187). Table 3.2.8 shows the most frequently used biosensor methods for detecting biogenic amines in food. The other rapid technique for the quantitative measurement of histamine in food is the solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most
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TABLE 3.2.8 Food
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Biosensors frequently used for detecting biogenic amines in food. Biocomponent DAO DAO DAO PAO XOD Orn-carbamyl transferase Nucleoside phosphorylase XOD Hypoxanthine oxidase XOD Amine oxidase, peroxidase DAO Histamine oxidase Amine oxidase, peroxidase Transducer Amp. Amp. Amp. Amp. O2 electrode Amp. Detection range <6 mM 1 10 6 to 5 10 5 mol/L 2 10 6 to 2 10 3 mol/L 2 10 6 to 1 10 3 mol/L <4 mM 40 mM 1 10 7 to 1 10 5 mol/L 1100 mM 1100 mM <9.5 10 7 M 1020 mM
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Data from Reference 169. Amp., amperometric detection; XOD, xanthine oxidase.
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immunochemical methods (enzyme immunoassays) for the detection of histamine are based on antibodies against N-amino derivatives of histamine synthesized by reaction with, for example, p-benzoquinone or propionic acid esters. Because the antibodies used in these tests are reactive only with the histamine adduct, chemical derivatization of histamine is necessary before analysis (188 191). The rst polyclonal antihistamine antibodies recognizing intact histamine were prepared by Schneider et al. (192) and incorporated in a commercial ELISA test kit. Recently, several commercial tests have been available. Commercial competitive direct ELISA immunoassay method was successfully used for the detection of histamine in cheese (193) and wines (194, 195). Simon Sarkadi et al. (196) applied competitive indirect ELISA method for detection of histamine in different foods (sauerkraut, cheese, sh, milk, and wine). The enzyme immunoassay seems to be a reliable technique for simple and rapid determination of histamine in food.
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