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TABLE 3.2.6 Ranges of biogenic amine contents in different types of beer (mg/L). Type of beer Top-fermented Ale Stout and porter Weissbier Kriek Trappsite Bottom-fermented Lager Pils Dortm nder Bock Nonalcoholic
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Histamine 0.5 2.0 nd 3.2 nd 2.4 1.6 14.0 nd 1.6 nd 2.6 nd 17.0 nd 1.3 nd 2.9 nd 3.2
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Tyramine 1.9 17.4 1.1 9.1 1.3 33.6 7.6 36.4 1.8 4.5 1.6 20.9 0.5 46.8 1.4 7.6 2.1 10.2 2.1 31.5
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Putrescine 2.6 9.7 2.4 8.2 2.4 6.7 3.5 5.1 3.2 9.1 1.5 9.7 2.6 8.8 3 5.6 2.1 12.4 1.6 4.7
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Cadaverine nd 4.2 nd 1.9 0.4 17.7 1.9 15.2 nd 1.9 nd 6.2 nd 31.4 nd 0.5 nd 1.5 nd 5.3
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Agmatine 1.1 15.7 5.2 10.8 3 10.7 1.1 3.4 3.2 19.4 0.9 27.2 5.1 40.9 6.1 13.4 0.4 21.5 2.6 16.8
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from shredded white cabbage. Fermentation process can be carried out using either spontaneous fermentation (which relies on the LAB occurring naturally on vegetables) or controlled fermentation (using a starter culture of Lactobacillus species). Among microorganisms contributing to sauerkraut production, Leuconostoc mesenteroides is of special importance in initiating the lactic acid fermentation. The next phase is characterized by the activity of homofermentative, no-gas-producing LAB with higher occurrence of Lactobacillus plantarum. The last phase of fermentation is dominated by heterofermentative lactic acid strains such as Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus, and Enterococccus (108). Table 3.2.7 shows the microorganisms involved in sauerkraut fermentation and their ability to form biogenic amines. Biogenic amine content of sauerkraut is highly in uenced by cabbage variety, technology (temperature, pH value change, oxygen access, or sodium chloride content), and bacterial contamination or microbial starters used for
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TABLE 3.2.7 Microorganisms involved in sauerkraut fermentation and their ability to form biogenic amines. Species Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus brevis Pediococcus Enterococcus
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Data from Reference 27.
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Biogenic amines Tyramine Tyramine, putrescine, phenylethylamine Tyramine, putrescine, tryptamine Tyramine Tyramine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine
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ANALYSIS
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fermentation. The main amines found in sauerkrauts are putrescine, histamine, tyramine, and cadaverine. Spermidine and spermine occurred only in small amounts in the products. Histamine and tyramine contents were commonly high (109 113). From the point of view of good manufacturing practice (GMP), concentrations of 50 100, 100 800, 30 mg/kg for Him, Tym, 2-phenylethylamine, respectively, or a total of 100 200 mg/kg are regarded as acceptable concentrations for fermented foods (114). K nsch et al. (115) recommended maximum values of 10, 20, 50, and 25 mg/kg for Him, Tym, Put, and Cad, respectively, for good quality sauerkraut. Utilization of starter cultures enables producers to make sauerkrauts with a standard quality.
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3.2.3 ANALYSIS Analysis of biogenic amines in food, like that of any other component present in a complex matrix, requires sample pretreatments involving their extraction from the food and concentration of the extract, followed by determination of the biogenic amines using an appropriate technique with sensitive detection. As most biogenic amines show neither natural UV-visible absorption nor uorescence, they require chemical derivatization before detection. Although many methods are available, the development of new and more useful approaches for the analysis of biogenic amines continues today. 3.2.3.1 Sample Preparation Used for Biogenic Amine Determination
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There are a variety of solvents commonly used for amine extraction from food, such as perchloric acid (PCA) (45, 50, 73, 116), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (67 69), methanesulfonic acid (117), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) (118). The extraction ef ciency of these methods depends largely on the type and nature of the amines and food. Two parameters seem to be basically important; one is the solvents used for the extraction and the other is the way the sample preparation is carried out. Some extracts may require puri cation (i.e., to remove interfering components) before separation by chromatography. Ion-exchange separations (68, 119) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) (118, 120 124) have frequently been applied to increase measurement sensitivity by concentration and puri cation of samples. The ion-exchange procedure is generally the following: the supernatant is applied to a small column equipped with (Amberlite CG-50, mesh size 100 and 200; Amberlite IRC-50; Amberlite PRP-64; Bio-Rad AG 1 8, mesh size 50 and 100; Dowex 1 8, mesh size 50 and 100) resin, then usually the column is washed with distilled water and then with 1 M HCl and after eluted with 6 M HCl. The eluate is dried at 45 C and redissolved in 0.03 M
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