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Biogenic amines are commonly found in many foods, especially in fermented foods and beverages. Fermentation is an ancient preservation method to increase the shelf life of various foods such as cheese, sausage, wine, beer, and sauerkraut. Bacteria of the genera Acetobacter, Bi dobacterium, Brevibacterium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus are used as
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starter cultures for the large-scale production of fermented foods and beverages in food technology. The types of food, the applied technology, and hygienic conditions during manufacture and/or storage are the main in uencing factors in the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of biogenic amines in food. 3.2.2.1 Dairy Products
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Cheese is one of the oldest human foods. All cheese results from a lactic acid fermentation of milk. Proteolysis of casein during cheese ripening leads to an increase in free amino acids. Due to the action of the raw milk ora or the starter strains, the formation of biogenic amines, especially histamine and tyramine, very often occurs in cheese. High amounts of tyramine may cause an increase in blood pressure; this symptom is known as cheese reaction. Cheese represents an ideal environment for biogenic amine production because of the great availability of amino acids and the presence of bacteria. The production of biogenic amines in cheese has been mainly attributed to the activity of nonstarter microorganisms, but the role of starter Lactobacillus cannot be excluded. Numerous bacteria used in cheese production have been reported to possess the amino acid decarboxylase activity (Table 3.2.1). The data indicate that starter cultures should be carefully checked for their potential to form biogenic amines during cheese processing conditions. Several factors may contribute to biogenic amine formation in cheese, such as the microbiological quality and the type of raw milk, the use of starter cultures, and the conditions and time of the ripening process. Higher ripening temperature and pH, and low salt concentration may contribute to the ability of the microbes to produce biogenic amines. The content of biogenic amines in several kinds of cheese has been studied and their amounts varied greatly even within the same variety (20, 27 39). Generally, the main amine found in cheese was tyramine, followed by histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine (Table 3.2.2). In particular, the microbial population of raw milk can in uence biogenic amine formation in cheese, even when thermal treatments are applied. The effect of milk quality (unpasteurized, pasteurized) and the type of milk (cow, ewe, goat) on biogenic amine content of cheese have been extensively studied (41 46). Cheese produced from ewes or goat milk showed lower amounts of biogenic amines in comparison with cows milk cheese. Other milk products such as yogurt and ke r have little or no detectable amounts of tyramine if made from pasteurized milk (47). 3.2.2.2 Meat and Meat Products
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Besides the fermentation of dairy products, a variety of meats can also be fermented. Dry sausage and salami are valuable meat products prepared by speci c processing. Fermented dry sausage is de ned as a mixture of comminuted fat and lean meat, salt, nitrate and/or nitrite, sugar, and different spices,
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TABLE 3.2.1 Microorganisms involved in cheese fermentation and their ability to form biogenic amines. Cheese Cottage Cream Microorganism Lactococcus lactis (Tym, Trpm) L. cremoris, L. diacetilus (Him), S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus (Tym) S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoriz (Him, Tym) Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris, E. durans (Tym) Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris, E. durans Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris, L. diacetilus Lactococcus lactis, L. helveticus, S. thermophilus Lactococcus lactis, L. cremoris, S. thermophilus Leuconostoc cremoris (Tym)
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