ANALYSIS in .NET

Printing Code 128A in .NET ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS
Recognize Code 128 Code Set B In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in VS .NET applications.
Mutagenicity
Code 128 Code Set A Creator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set A image in .NET framework applications.
Various studies have been published concerning the mutagenicity of ethyl carbamate in a wide range of organisms (for reviews, see References 19, 20, 32 41). In bacterial mutagen test systems, the results were mainly negative. However, in Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of P450-mediated activation, ethyl carbamate was reported to be mutagenic. Genotoxic potential has also been evaluated using both a standard strain of D. melanogaster and a strain in which the genetic control of cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme systems had been altered (constitutively increased P450 enzyme activities) (19). The effects were dose-dependent and the modi ed strain was more sensitive to ethyl carbamate. These observations were consistent with the involvement of the P450 enzyme system in the activation of ethyl carbamate to the more potent mutagen, vinyl carbamate (37). This mechanism is believed to play a central role in the clastogenicity (chromosome-breaking ability) and mutagenicity of ethyl carbamate (37). In mutagenicity tests using eukaryotic cells, ethyl carbamate was found to induce point mutation, intrachromosomal recombination, chromosomal aberrations, and sister chromatid exchanges in yeast, plant systems, and mammalian cells (20). 3.1.2.3 Carcinogenicity
Recognize ANSI/AIM Code 128 In VS .NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
From the pervious discussion it is evident that ethyl carbamate is genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. It is therefore not surprising that ethyl carbamate is a well-known multisite animal carcinogen (4). Doses of between 100 and 2000 mg kg 1 bw using a variety of administration routes have been shown to induce tumors in a wide range of experimental animals. For example, in a recent 2-year drinking water study on mice, exposure-related tumors (neoplasms) were found in the liver, lung, Harderian gland, skin, and forestomach together with rare and invasive cancers (hemangiosarcomas), primarily of the liver and heart (31). Possible mechanisms for the carcinogenicity of ethyl carbamate are induction of DNA damage by its metabolites (40) and an increase in cell proliferation in target tissues. Ethyl carbamate is also teratogenic (causes physical defects in the developing embryo) in mice when administered during gestation. The teratogenic effects were evident in the offspring when either male or female rodents were exposed prior to mating or pregnancy (42). Ethyl carbamate has recently been classi ed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) (26).
Bar Code Encoder In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET framework applications.
3.1.3 ANALYSIS 3.1.3.1 Chemistry in General
Recognize Bar Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
3.1.3.1.1 Physical Properties Ethyl carbamate (NH2COOC2H5; MW 89; CAS 51-79-6) is a colorless and almost odorless white powder that is very
Print USS Code 128 In C#.NET
Using Barcode drawer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in .NET framework applications.
ETHYL CARBAMATE (URETHANE)
ANSI/AIM Code 128 Creator In VS .NET
Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code128 image in ASP.NET applications.
TABLE 3.1.1 Physical properties of ethyl carbamate. Parameter Boiling point ( C) Melting point ( C) Solubility (g 100 mL 1) in olive oil in water in ether in chloroform in alcohol Vapor pressure (mm Hg at 25 C) Vapor density (air = 1) Log Kow Density/speci c gravity Value 185 49 3.13 48 67.7 111 125 0.262 3.07 0.15 0.9813 Reference no. 44 44 45 46 45 45 45 47 48 49 44
Encoding Code 128 In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code-128 image in .NET framework applications.
soluble both in water and in a wide range of organic solvents (43). This, together with its relatively high vapor pressure of 0.262 mm Hg, can impact on the extraction ef ciency and potential losses of ethyl carbamate at trace analytical levels. The physical properties of ethyl carbamate are given in Table 3.1.1. 3.1.3.1.2 Chemical Derivatives As the ester of carbamic acid, ethyl carbamate exhibits reactions typical of both amides and carboxylic acid esters. For example, N-acetyl and N-alkyl derivatives of ethyl carbamate have been prepared for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nitrogen selective detectors (50 52), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with uorescence detection (FLD) (53). 3.1.3.1.3 Analytical Precautions Special precautions must be taken when analyzing ethyl carbamate as conditions of sample storage (time, temperature, exposure to light) and extraction (temperature, pH) can have a signi cant impact on the results obtained. In wines, long storage times and elevated temperatures (storage and analytical) can increase ethyl carbamate concentrations (from ethanol and urea) (54, 55). In stone-fruit brandies, temperature does not appear to be in uential although light can drastically increase ethyl carbamate concentrations, particularly in recently distilled samples (19). In aqueous alkali, ethyl carbamate is reported to decompose to a mixture of the alkali cyanate and carbonate (19). 3.1.3.1.4 Extraction Foodstuffs such as bread are homogenized with water, centrifuged and the aqueous layer separated. Aqueous samples/preparations containing ethyl carbamate are typically extracted into an organic solvent using either liquid liquid or solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to GC analysis. Dichloromethane is usually the solvent of choice for liquid liquid extraction, followed by a cleanup step with Florisil columns (13), whereas pre-adsorption
Code-39 Generator In .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create Code 3/9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Drawing EAN-13 Supplement 5 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generation for .NET framework Control to generate, create EAN 13 image in .NET framework applications.
Planet Creator In .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create Planet image in .NET framework applications.
UCC - 12 Creation In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create USS-128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Bar Code Printer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
Painting GTIN - 12 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create UPC-A image in ASP.NET applications.
Encode Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications.