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1 What Is an Agile Methodology
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likely to resent having to start again. This is a potentially serious quality and ef ciency problem. In many companies, software developers spend most of their time developing their code on their own with little discussion with others, and when aws in their output are found, a lot of time has been wasted. An agile methodology, therefore, needs to address this issue of review and testing and to provide a mechanism that will provide con dence in the quality of the product. Another quality aspect is the correctness of the nal code. This is usually addressed by testing whereby the software is run against suitable test sets and its behavior monitored to establish whether it is behaving in the required manner. For this to work we need two basic things: we need to know what the software is supposed to do, and we need to be able to create test sets that will give us enough con dence that the code does do what it is supposed to do. The role of testing in the design and construction of software is a misunderstood and underdeveloped activity. An effective agile methodology must provide a clear link between the identi cation of what the system is supposed to do and the creation and maintenance of effective test sets. Furthermore the testing must be fully integrated into the construction process so that we avoid the massive problems and expense that arise when the testing is done last. It also allows us to introduce key design for test considerations driven by the realization that the way the system is constructed will affect the ease and effectiveness of the testing. Some systems are almost impossible to test properly because of the way that they have been built. This is well-known in hardware design (microprocessors, etc.) but is not something that seems to exercise software engineering much. There are many myths about software quality and what the position really is. Little empirical research has been carried out analyzing the quality of software systems. What has been done has often uncovered some uncomfortable news. In terms of the operational faults leaving aside the problem of capturing the wrong requirements the evidence is pretty gloomy. Hatton (1998) in a series of studies discovered the following: Using static deep ow analysis across many different industries and application areas, he measured the consistency of several million lines of software written in various languages: C, Fortran 77, C , and so forth. He also measured the level of dynamic disagreement between independent implementations of the same algorithms acting on the same input data with the same parameters in just one of these industrial application areas. On average there were 8 serious faults per 1000 lines for C programs and 12 for Fortran; 10% of the C population would be deemed untestable by any standards. Object-oriented languages were worse, not only in the density of faults but also in the time it took to correct them ndings also supported by the work of Humphreys (1995). Many of these faults relate to technical issues in the implementation; the programs compile but do not work in a predictable or correct way. Variables are used before being properly declared, memory over ows, and so on. The key to managing these problems is to test thoroughly all the time.
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1.6 Do We Really Need All This Mountain of Documentation
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Most nonchaotic software development methods are design led and document driven. We need to examine the purpose of all this paperwork (it might be stored electronically, but it still amounts to masses of text, diagrams, and arcane notations). Let s look rst at the issue of design: what is it for and where does it t in a development project Design is a mechanism for exploring and documenting possible solutions in a way that should make the eventual translation into working software easy and trouble free. If there is an analysis phase, then typically this will establish the overall parameters of the project and will result in a (usually xed) set of requirements and constraints for the project. The design phase then takes this information and develops a more concrete representation of the system in a form that is suitable as a basis for programming. The desire for agility means that the analysis phase is likely to be continuous throughout most of the project if it is to be able to adapt to changing business need. If an agile approach is to work, the nature and role of analysis must change. Therefore the role of design will also be an issue. How can we deal with the rapid changes that analysis might throw up if the design is proceeding by way of a large and complex process that is trying to identify, at a signi cant level of detail, issues that will eventually be the responsibility of programmers to solve Large, complex designs are almost impossible to maintain in this context. Some tool vendors will emphasize the bene t of using computer-aided software engineering (CASE) and other tools that might provide support for the maintenance of the design, but many programmers dislike these systems, which are often imposed by the management, and some programmers may feel that their creativity is compromised. Creative programmers will also be tempted to solve problems that arise during implementation that were not predicted by the analysis or design phases without updating the design archive. This is a real problem in many projects that may only come to light during maintenance when it is discovered that the design differs from what the system actually is. In other words, the code does not work as the design documents indicate in some, possibly crucial, areas. Thus maintenance is carried out by reference to the code, which is the key resource, and the design may not be used or trusted. Thus why is it there The design is a resource that has cost time and money to create, and yet it may not seem to provide any reliable value. It might actually damage projects because of the dif culties of ensuring that the design can evolve as the business needs change. It is possible that the existence of a large and complex design may encourage developers to resist changes to the system asked for by the client. If this happens, and I believe that it often does, then the client is not going to get the system they want. A standard technique is to tell the client that it would be too expensive to change things and this often works, but it is a short-term solution. The client is going to be less than satis ed at the end. An agile process needs to be able to deal with this issue.
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