Parentheses in Visual Studio .NET

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Parentheses
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Ensure that the use of parentheses is very liberal. Always prefer to include parentheses as opposed to allowing possible operator precedence problems. This is still the case even if you think the operator precedence appears clear to you it may not be so clear to another person!
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if ((a == b) && (c == d)) // We prefer this... if (a == b && c == d) // ...to this
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Returning Values
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Think twice about returning values dependent on certain criteria.
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if (booleanExpression) return false; else return true; // The above is equivalent to the following!!! return !booleanExpression; // Here is another example! if (condition) return x; else return y; // Again, the above is equivalent to the following!!! return (condition x: y);
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10 Documenting and Delivering the System
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: Operator
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If there is a binary operator in the condition before the in the ternary operator :, use parentheses:
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return ((x >= 0) x: -x);
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Other languages have standards recommendations and should be consulted where appropriate. Among the useful Web sites available are those for PHP (http://www.phpcodingstandards.com/) and C# (http://weblogs.asp.net/lhunt/ pages/CSharp-Coding-Standards-document.aspx).
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10.4 MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION
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Your system will be the subject of maintenance, assuming that it gets used at all. Someone will have to deal with the support of the system and possibly the further development of it. In your professional career, maintenance will often play a large and important role, and it is usually regarded as an unpopular activity. We should aim to make it as easy and as painless as possible. Much maintenance carried out in industrial and commercial contexts is seriously hindered by a lack of documentation that prevents the engineer from fully understanding the system and what it is supposed to do. In the past, the popular belief was that large amounts of design documents would be the resource that was the most effective basis on which to carry out different types of maintenance. In reality, this is rarely the case as we discussed in an earlier chapter. The design documents may not fully re ect the source code; these designs may not have been updated as the requirements changed or as implementation problems drove the design away from the theoretical position adopted at the beginning. We have to provide some basic information relevant to the maintenance team that is reliable, understandable, and complete, as far as is possible. It is assumed that the requirements documents and user stories will be available. These are numbered and organized in a systematic way. The system metaphor and overall software architecture should also be present and should match the actual system. This is easier to achieve than trying to relate everything to a large design that may not have been updated during the development of the system because of the need to solve unforeseen problems in implementation, the changes to the requirements, and so forth. The code should be consistent with the coding standards and the comments useful and complete. They should refer to the other parts of the document so that we can trace how different parts of the code relate to the user stories. The test sets that were used to demonstrate compliance with the requirements should also be available so that they could be rerun for retesting or parts of them used for regression testing (testing that checks that the overall system works properly when parts of the system have been changed). Testing documents should be available from the project. We discussed how these should be designed, using tables and spreadsheets to describe the tests and the test
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10.5 User Manuals
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results. All this information should be preserved and included in the system documentation for future maintenance.
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10.5 USER MANUALS
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User manuals are vital parts of the system, at least as important as the code in the sense that a poor manual will compromise the success of the system: people can t or won t use it properly, it fails to assist users in carrying out their tasks, and so on. What makes a good user manual, and how can we write one We need to go back to think about the purpose of the system. This has already been encapsulated in the user stories, the user characteristics of the system, and in some of the functional and non-functional requirements documents. The document should start with a brief review of the purpose of the system and then provide a structured basis for carrying out all the tasks commonly expected. This should be written in simple, jargon-free language with plenty of screen shots and other simple diagrams to explain the processes described. A good index is vital as well as a glossary of the terms used. Look at a few examples of user manuals for systems that you have used and ask yourself how good they were for you. Generally, user manuals are written by technical people, often programmers in the project team; they are often written at the end of the project, and they are often written poorly. In an XP context, it is likely that some of the manual cannot be written until the end but quite a lot can be done beforehand, especially if the system is being delivered incrementally. In this case, the manual will have an incremental structure. Some may take the view that the system is so intuitive to use that no manual is necessary. This may be the case with some Web-based systems, perhaps an e-commerce development or an information system based around a Web browser. Do not make any assumptions about this. If you think that your system is intuitive and it is obvious how to use it, then you should prove this. Choose some typical users and ask them to use it and observe them. You will probably be surprised at the dif culties some people have even with the simplest system. Many of the unpopular and unusable software systems of the past (and present) have been built under the assumptions that the use of them is obvious to all. The requirement stories had estimates of the change likelihood, and this will give you an indication of when parts of the manual can be written. Some authors, notably Weiss (1991), suggest that the manual should be written rst, before the code, so that it provides clear information to the programmers and could be used as a basis for testing. We have essentially adopted this position here with the use of X-machines as the basis for the speci cation of the test sets. The user manual could be a simpli ed version of the paths through the X-machine written in everyday language. As the requirements change and mature, they will be re ected in the X-machine structure and thus the structure of the user manual. The user manual, like everything else in the project, needs to be reviewed and tested with users or representatives of the type of people likely to be users. Creating
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