Automating Unit Tests in .NET framework

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8.5 Automating Unit Tests
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Writing Unit Tests in JUniti2
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JUnit is one of a family of unit testing frameworks available (see http://www.Junit. org). Most of the unit testing frameworks available for other languages have been written to emulate the JUnit style, although language constraints often prohibit a direct correspondence. They are often referred to as XUnit where X represents the particular programming language. The easiest way to structure unit tests using JUnit is as follows: A unit test in JUnit can be taken to mean a test of a class. If there is a class called Vector in the package mypackage.util, there should be a class that tests it called TestVector in the package mypackagetest.util. For ease of reference, the directory structure of this test package should match that of the main package. The template structure for a test class is as follows:
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package mypackagetest; import junit.framework.*;/ /the junit testing framework import mypackage.*; public class VectorTest extends TestCase / /Must extend TestCase { private Vector empty, full; / /Just some vectors we can test on public VectorTest(String name) {/ /Standard constructor, cut & paste super(name); } public static Test suite() {/ /This is used later in collecting tests return new TestSuite(VectorTest.class);/ /standard structure } /** * In here we can set up the variables we will be using in our tests. * This method is run immediately before every individual test method. */ public void setUp() { full = new Vector(2); full.add("element1"); full.add("element2"); empty = new Vector(); } / /--- Now some actual tests --public testAdd() { assert(empty.add("1").size() != 0); //... }
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Notes on JUnit prepared by Dave Carrington of Genesys Solutions from material available on www.XProgramming.com.
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8 Units and Their Tests
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public testRemove() { //if Remove removes the last element assert(full.remove().size() == 1); assert(empty.size() == 0); //setup() is called before each test method assert(empty.remove().size() == 0); //... } }
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Each test method is essentially just a list of assert statements, which will raise an exception if passed false as an argument. JUnit automatically collates all methods whose name starts with test to add to the set of tests, so if we were to add a method named testInsert() to the above code, JUnit would automatically detect it. (Note: Other unit testing frameworks require you to explicitly name all individual test methods.) Once we ve got some of these test classes, we ll want to be able to run them. To do this, we must rst create a test collection class in the following format:
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package mypackagetest; import junit.framework.*; public class AllTests { public static Test suite() { TestSuite suite = new TestSuite("All of the mypackage tests"); suite.addTest(VectorTest.suite()); suite.addTest(StringTest.suite()); suite.addTest(WhateverTest.suite()); return suite; } }]]>
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The above is self-explanatory we just collate all of our test classes in a suite, and return it. We can now run the JUnit test-suite runner program to run all of the tests in our suite. This is done in the following way: either
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java junit.swingui.TestRunner mypackagetest.AllTests
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java junit.textui.TestRunner mypackagetest.AllTests
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The test-runner tells us of the rst assert statement that fails, giving the exception stack trace so that the assert statement can be identi ed. The unit testing frameworks available for other languages work on the same principles (i.e., a function is written for each test, which contains a list of assert
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8.6 Documenting Unit Test Results Table 8.5 Test Results Table Ref. 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.2.1 Test ... ... ... ... ... Expected outcome ... ... ... ... ...
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statements). The way they differ is in the management of these test functions JUnit can locate individual test methods automatically using Java s re ection mechanism. Other unit testing frameworks usually don t have this luxury.
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Managing Tests
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A possible structure for recording is shown in Table 8.5. The rst digit in the Ref. column is the story number. The second digit is a test number and is unordered (i.e., test 1.2 can be carried out before test 1.1). All subsequent digits are test order numbers and indicate that a test x.y.z must be performed after x.y. Tests at the same level are still unordered, so x.y.a is independent of x.y.b. Thus, test 1.2.2 must be performed after 1.2, but is independent of 1.2.1, for example.
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