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8.4 More Complex Units
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Using an X-machine to represent the class activity can help to generate the test set more easily and completely and potentially automatically.
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8.4.1 Case Example: The AddElement Function in JHotDraw
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This example is taken, with permission, from a more detailed paper by Walkinshaw and Bogdanov (2007). HotDraw is an application written by Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck in the Smalltalk programming language. It has also been implemented in Java by Erich Gamma (JHotDraw, 2007) and called JHotDraw and is an open source program. JHotDraw allows the user to construct simple graphical images using a number of standard shapes (rectangles, circles, freehand etc.). It also allows you to add text and arrows to the pictures being created (Fig. 8.7). A story card for JHotDraw is in Fig. 8.8. The top level X-machine can be described in Fig. 8.9. As far as identifying inputs is concerned, most of the functions in the diagram are too abstract to be activated by a single input. Functions such as add_element are triggered by a combination of inputs (select a tool then click and drag mouse on canvas). If we want to document the detailed behavior of this function, and especially if we want to test it, it needs to be modeled at a lower level of abstraction. To illustrate how this can be done, we re ne the AddElement processing function as a separate X-machine with the following processing functions: The AddElement function can be described also as an X-machine (Fig. 8.10). Ultimately, especially if we aim to use the machines as a basis for test case generation, we need to make sure that each transition in each machine is labeled
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Figure 8.7 A screenshot of JHotDraw in use.
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8 Units and Their Tests
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Figure 8.8 A possible story card for AddElement.
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Figure 8.9 X-machine model of JHotDraw.1
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One Ignore function is added to the diagram to remind us to think about completeness.
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8.4 More Complex Units
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JHotDraw AddElement model.
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with an input symbol. Depending on the system function, an input may either correspond with an actual program input (e.g., the click of a button in the user interface) or a method invocation at a lower level. Here we demonstrate the process of identifying inputs for the add_element function in Fig. 8.10 (Table 8.2). Select_mode is the default control state allowing users to select elements to be placed on the canvas. Most of the other details are fairly self-explanatory. The next stage is to construct a lower-level X-machine that describes the behavior of the select_text_tool as an example.
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Table 8.2 Function Details for AddElement Function Select_text_tool Select_ gure_tool Get_textbox Create_new_textbox Edit_text Delete_text Set_ gure_position Set_ gure_dimensions Add_textbox_to_canvas Input trigger Text_button Figure_button Click(over text box) Click(over canvas) Text_entry Text_entry Mouse_down Mouse_up Textbox Memory Mouse_position (x,y) Mouse_position (x,y) Textbox Textbox Mouse_position(x,y) Origin (x,y), Mouse_position (x,y) Output Text_mode Figure_mode textbox textbox textbox Select_mode (x,y) (x,y) Select_mode
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This section is not concerned with identifying individual objects as part of the software development process. Object modeling is more a matter of software architecture than of functional speci cation, so for the sake of simplicity, this section assumes that there exists an a priori object model and is merely concerned with (a) picking the objects that are relevant to a high-level element of functionality (a system function) and (b) creating a machine that models the object s contribution to that element of functionality. Here we illustrate how to model the individual objects for the select_text_tool processing function from the add_element machine in Fig. 8.10. Because JavaDraw is a Java application, its implementation is largely based on the Java AWT (Abstract Windowing Toolkit) library interfaces. It is no longer suf cient to simply break down the system into arbitrary functions because they have to conform to an existing set of interfaces. At this level, the design becomes speci c to the underlying language and component interfaces; a similar speci cation for a different language and different libraries (e.g., C# and its GUI libraries) could differ signi cantly. There are a number of traditional state machine object representations (e.g., UML statecharts), but these make the simplistic assumption that an object reacts solely to method calls, thus a state transition is usually labeled with the method that triggers it. In practice, however, object interactions are more complex; behavior can also be affected by values that are returned by method calls, exceptions can be thrown that deviate from expected behavior, and call-backs can occur, all of which are dif cult to intuitively denote with traditional state machine notations. To account for this ne-grained object communication behavior, we model objects using Bogdanov s specialized X-machine model (Bogdanov, 2005) called the object machine. His model extends the range of inputs that can affect the behavior of an object to include values returned from collaborating objects, exceptions, and call-backs, as well as conventional method calls. In terms of the source code, every possible input (incoming communication) and output (outgoing communication) corresponds with a particular type of statement, as is shown in Table 8.3.
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Table 8.3 Object Machine Inputs and Outputs with Their Corresponding Statements Statements Inputs Incoming method call Return of control from called method Caught exception Outputs Outgoing method call Return of control to a calling method Thrown exception First statement of a method Call site First statement of a catch clause Call site Return statement Throw statement
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