THE OWL-S APPROACH in .NET

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THE OWL-S APPROACH
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offering the same functionality (or an enhanced functionality) to be easily plugged-in. WSMX architecture (see Figure 10.3) provides descriptions of the external interfaces and behaviors for all the components and for the system as a whole. By this, the system s overall functionality is separated from the implementation of particular components. It is worth noting that WSMX accepts as inputs only WSML messages and returns the results as WSML messages as well. In the case of requesters unable to process WSML the Adapter Framework can be used to transform from/ to an arbitrary representation format to/from WSML. For more details about the WSMX infomodel, the reader can check the WSMX code base at Sourceforge9. In the future, WSMX intends to support dynamic execution semantics, which means that it will become possible to dynamically load during runtime the intended behavior of the system.
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10.3. THE OWL-S APPROACH
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OWL-S (2004), part of the DAML program10, is an OWL-based Web Service Ontology; it aims at providing building blocks for encoding rich semantic service descriptions, in a way that builds naturally upon OWL. Very often is referred to the OWL-S ontology as a language for describing services, thus re ecting the fact that it provides a vocabulary that can be used together with the other aspects of the OWL to create service descriptions. The OWL-S ontology mainly consists of three interrelated sub-ontologies, known as the pro le, process model, and grounding. The pro le is used to express what a service does, for purposes of advertising, constructing service requests, and matchmaking; the process model describes how it works, to enable invocation, enactment, composition, monitoring, and recovery; and the grounding maps the constructs of the process model onto detailed speci cations of message formats, protocols, and so forth (normally expressed in WSDL). All these sub-ontologies are linked to the top-level concept Service, which serves as an organizational point of reference for declaring Web Services; whenever a service is declared, an instance of the Service concept is created. As shown in Figure 10.4 below, the properties presents, describedBy, and supports are properties of Service. The classes ServicePro le (which identi es the pro le sub-ontology), ServiceModel (which identi es the process model sub-ontology), and ServiceGrounding (which identi es the grounding sub-ontology) are the respective ranges of those properties. Each instance of Service will present
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http://sourceforge.net/projects/wsmx/ http://www.daml.org/
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Service Requester 0
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Orchestration
Security
Service Requester n
Ros. Net
Rosetta Net
Interface
Interface
Service Requester n
WSML
WSMX Interface
Amazon XML-S
Data Mediation
Process Mediation
Discovery
Selection
New component
Interface
Another XML-S
Service Requester 1
Web Services Goals
WSMX Resource Manager
Ontologies
Mediators
Service Requester 0
WSML
Figure 10.3 WSMX architecture.
THE OWL-S APPROACH
Figure 10.4 Top level elements of OWL-S (OWL-S, 2004).
a ServicePro le description, be describedBy a ServiceModel description, and support a ServiceGrounding description. In the rest of this section we take a closer look at the elements that are part of the OWL-S Service Pro le ontology (in Section 10.3.1), and of the OWL-S Service Model ontology (in Section 10.3.2); we do not discuss the OWL-S Grounding ontology in this section as we provide a wider overview of the general problem of SWS Grounding in Section 10.7.
10.3.1. OWL-S Service Pro les
In OWL-S, the Service Pro le provides means to describe the services offered by the providers, and the services needed by the requesters. No representation of services is imposed by the Service Pro le, but rather, using the OWL sub-classing it is possible to create specialized representations of services that can be used as service pro les. However, for pragmatic reasons, OWL-S provides one possible representation through the class Pro le. A service, de ned through the OWL-S Pro le, is modeled as a function of three basic types of information:  The Organization that Provides the Service: The contact information that refers to the entity that provides the service (e.g., contact information may refer to the maintenance operator that is responsible for running the service, or to a customer representative that may provide additional information about the service, etc.).  The Function the Service Computes: The transformation produced by the service. The functional description includes the inputs required by the service and the outputs generated; the preconditions required by the service and the expected effects that result from the execution of the service.