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 Ontology description  Declarative functional description of Goals and Web services  Description of dynamics In its current version WSML de nes a syntax and semantics for ontology description. The formalisms which were mentioned earlier are used to give a formal meaning to ontology descriptions in WSML. For the functional description of Goals and Web services, WSML offers a syntactical framework, with Hoare-style semantics in mind (Hoare, 1969). However, WSML does not formally specify the semantics of the functional description of services. A possible direction for this semantics description is the use of Transaction Logic (e.g., like in Kifer et al. (2004)). The description of the dynamics of Web services (choreography and orchestration) in the context of WSML is currently under investigation, but has not (yet) been integrated in WSML. This section is further structured as follows. We rst motivate and describe the formalisms which form the basis for WSML, as well as the WSML language variants which are based on these formalisms, after which we brie y introduce the syntax and semantics of WSML, taking as example a simpli ed version of the Amazon Web Service. 10.2.2.1. WSML Language Variants WSML has language variants which are based on ve formalisms related to First-Order Predicate Logic (FOPL). Description Logics (DL) (Baader, 2003) is a family of languages which (for the most part) can be seen as subsets of FOPL. We have chosen to use the DL language SHIQ in WSML because it is an expressive DL for which ef cient sound and complete reasoning algorithms and implementations exist for checking concept satis ability, subsumption, and other reasoning tasks. Furthermore, there exist application in Web Service discovery and the language has already been applied to the Semantic Web in the language OWL (Dean and Schreiber, 2004). Another formal pillar of WSML is Logic Programming7. Logic Programming has a wide body of research work in the area of query answering, as well as many ef cient implementations. Furthermore, there exist applications of Logic Programming in the area of Web Service for discovery, contracting, and other tasks and there is also a broad interest in applying rule languages to the Web (http://www.ruleml.org/) better cite RIF working group. F-Logic (Kifer et al., 1995) is an extension of FOPL with higher-order style Object Oriented modeling primitives which stays semantically in a First-Order framework. With F-Logic Programming we mean the Logic Programming language which is obtained from the Horn subset of F-Logic.
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When talking about Logic Programming we mean purely declarative rules languages, based on the so-called Horn subset of FOPL, with a model-theoretic semantics based on Herbrand models.
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SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES APPROACHES AND PERSPECTIVES
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First-Order Logic WSML-DL Description Logics
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WSML variants.
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The WSML syntax inspired by F-Logic arguably makes logical expressions easier to write since the modeling vocabulary is not restricted to predicates, as in FOPL, but also includes concepts, instances, attribute typing, and attribute values. There exist several implementations of F-Logic Programming as well as experiences in case studies, as well as a commercial product (Ontobroker). F-Logic Programming can be reduced to regular Logic Programming, thereby bene ting from the research and experience in the area. Figure 10.2 depicts the WSML language variants. WSML-Core marks the intersection of Description Logics and Logic Programming, also called Description Logic Programs (Grosof et al., 2003). WSML extends this core language in two directions, namely DLs and F-Logic Programming, which allows the variants to bene t from the established research and the tools which have been developed in these areas. WSML-DL is based on the DL SHIQ(D); WSML-Flight is based on the Datalog subset of F-Logic and WSML-Rule is based on the Horn subset of F-Logic; WSML-Flight and WSML-Rule both include negation-as-failure. WSMLFull uni es the Description Logic and Logic Programming paradigms under a First-Order umbrella with speci c extensions to capture the negation-as-failure of the Logic Programming-based WSML variants. In WSML we use a subset of F-Logic as a syntactic extension of the variant based on Logic Programming, namely WSML-Rule. Interoperability between the variants based on DL and Logic Programming can be achieved using so-called Description Logic Programs (DLP) (Grosof et al. 2003). DLP prescribes syntactical restrictions on the ontologies such that they both can be seen as DL ontologies and Logic Programs (LP). The relationship between the syntactically equivalent DL ontology and the LP is then as follows: the DL ontology and the LP are equivalent with respect to
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