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C> route add host 192.9.231.1 router-net1 1
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Host routes are suitable for small client/server computing groups, because they grow linearly in size as more clients and servers are added to the mix. Host routes have the advantage of putting the client in control of its path to the server, and they don t require any router reconfiguration. They support multiple routers and can be easily automated on the client side by testing connectivity, making them resistant to a variety of configuration and naming errors. The downside, again, is complexity. For larger computing groups, use redundant routers and fully redundant networks and avoid making changes on a per-client basis. In all cases, redundant network rails consume a large number of IP addresses, so ensure that you have enough network numbers or subnets and a sufficiently large number of free network addresses to accommodate your numbering and failover system. You can conserve IP addresses by using host routes to connect servers directly to routers, eliminating networks of two or three servers. Since clients match the longest portion of an IP address possible when looking for a route, they ll find host routes to servers first in their search. In Figure 9.6, the two routers connect four servers to the client network, using only one IP network with four host routes. Without the host routes, two IP network numbers would be needed, one for each group of servers, creating a configuration that scales poorly as additional servers are brought online.
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bigboy1 192.9.232.0 net router-net1 client router-net2 192.9.231.0 net bigboy2 client
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Figure 9.5 Host route configuration.
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Figure 9.6 Host routes versus IP networks.
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Internet historians will tell you that IP was designed to help the ARPANET survive a nuclear attack that might take out major portions of it. Sounds impressive, but it s probably a magnified version of the truth: IP packets benefit from a flexible and resilient routing scheme. Internet Protocol remains a best-effort, hop-by-hop network protocol that implements redundancy through routing choices. Getting hosts onto multiple networks requires careful engineering of IP addresses and network numbers, but routing traffic between IP networks is relatively easy once you build in a level of router redundancy. You have two choices for IP routing redundancy: dynamic route discovery or static routes using the Virtual Router Recovery Protocol (VRRP).
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Figure 9.7 shows a typical redundant router configuration. Network net3 is accessible directly via router r4 from network net1, and through either r1 or r2 and r3. The default behavior is to use the lowest-cost route as measured by the number of router hops between the networks, so packets going to net3 from net1 will use router r4. If r4 crashes or loses its routing information, packets can be sent via the higher-cost but equally good redundant route. IP once again proves its strength as a repairman of broken networks, but the time required to accomplish the repair isn t easy to determine. Hosts using the route through r4 will notice that r4 stopped sending routing updates within a minute of its crash. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) updates normally are sent once every 30 seconds, so allowing for the time required to recognize an update was missed and for the time needed to update routing tables, 60 to 90 seconds go by before the routing information from r2 or r1 is used to set up an alternate route to net3. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sockets connected between hosts on net1 and net3 are oblivious to the change, since IP handles the packet shuffle and updates. However, it s possible for application failures to result during the time required to build the second route:
TCP sockets set a timer that detects failure of either endpoint. The default value for this keep-alive timer can be as long as 2 hours, depending on your operating system; however, many network managers tune it down to several minutes to allow rapid cleanup of broken connections. As a result, a network that takes 2 minutes to reconfigure may result in broken socket connections. Applications don t always wait patiently for initial connections to a service. If an application was attempting to contact a network service on net3 when r4 failed, it s possible that the application will timeout and complain. A subsequent attempt should result in a success, but the user sees a temporary failure. Hosts on net3 may not know about a return path to net1 via router r3. If they were using router r4 as a default route and were not receiving RIP updates, then incoming traffic will reach net3, but responses will be undeliverable because no path exists back to the source on net1.
When you lose end-to-end connectivity, in either direction, applications on either side believe the other side has failed. Errors that occur during connection setup are easily traced back, but intermediate failures, once connections are established, generate calls to the help desk.