Generation Quick Response Code in .NET framework ADVANCED TASK SCHEDULING
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Figure 627 Two schedules of Exercise 62 s task graph on three processors
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For genetic algorithms and node duplication: (a) Why is it more dif cult to nd an ef cient chromosome encoding for task scheduling when node duplication is allowed (b) Suggest an encoding and discuss appropriate operators
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Communication Contention in Scheduling
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While task scheduling is an NP-hard problem, its theoretical foundations, as discussed in previous chapters, are easily understood through the high level of abstraction Computation and communication are strictly separated, whereby the communication is free of contention Yet, for task scheduling to be more than a mere theoretical exercise, the level of abstraction must be suf ciently close to the reality of parallel systems During the course of this and the next chapter, it will become clear that this is not the case for the classic model of the target parallel system (De nition 43) Therefore, recently proposed models are analyzed that overcome the shortcomings of the classic model, while preserving the theoretical basis of task scheduling The critical analysis of the classic model performed in this and the next chapter identi es three of the model s properties, all regarding communication, to be often absent from real systems Many parallel systems do not possess a dedicated communication subsystem (Property 4); consequently, the processors are involved in communication The number of resources for communication, such as network interfaces and links, is limited, which contradicts Property 5 of concurrent communication And nally, only a small number of parallel systems have networks with a fully connected topology, which is Property 6 of the classic model As a consequence, the following general issues must be investigated:
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The topology of communication network The contention for communication resources The involvement of processors in communication
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This chapter primarily investigates how to handle contention for communication resources in task scheduling As the network topology has a major impact on contention, the consideration of network topologies, other than fully connected, is a requisite and addressed beforehand The next chapter will deal with the involvement of the processors in communication This is done based on the target system model presented in this chapter, so that the nal model considers all of the referred issues
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Task Scheduling for Parallel Systems, by Oliver Sinnen Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
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As will be seen, incorporating contention awareness and network topologies into task scheduling leaves the principles of scheduling almost untouched In contrast, considering the involvement of the processor in communication has a signi cant impact on how scheduling algorithms work The objective of making task scheduling contention aware is the generation of more accurate and ef cient schedules For this objective the following goals are pursued: (1) achieving a more accurate and general representation of real parallel systems; (2) keeping the system model as simple as possible; and (3) allowing the adoption of the scheduling concepts and techniques of the classic model Section 71 begins the discussion of contention aware scheduling by stating the problem more precisely and reviewing different approaches to its solution Based on this review, the principles of the approach adopted in this text are described In order to achieve high generality, the new model should permit one to represent heterogeneity in terms of the communication network as well as in terms of processors The representation of the communication network, addressed in Section 72, is designed accordingly The essential concept to achieve contention awareness edge scheduling is presented and analyzed in Section 73 Using edge scheduling, task scheduling becomes contention aware, which is elaborated in Section 74, including an analysis of the consequences for the task scheduling framework Finally, Section 75 shows how scheduling algorithms, in particular, list scheduling, are adapted to the new scheduling model
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71 CONTENTION AWARENESS Contention for communication resources arises in parallel systems, since the number of resources is limited If a resource is occupied by one communication, any other communication requiring the same resource has to wait until it becomes available In turn, the task depending on the delayed communication is also forced to wait Thus, con icts among communications generally result in a higher overall execution time The classic model of the target parallel system (De nition 43) ignores this circumstance by assuming that all communications can be performed concurrently (Property 5) and that the processors are fully connected (Property 6) However, recent publications have demonstrated the importance of contention awareness for the accuracy and the execution time of schedules (Macey and Zomaya [132], Sinnen and Sousa [171, 176, 178]) At the end of this chapter in Section 754 these experimental results are reviewed in more detail Also, in data parallel programming, contention aware scheduling of communications is common (Tam and Wang [183]) Another indicator for the importance of contention is the fact that the LogP programming model (Culler et al [46, 47]), discussed in Section 213, explicitly re ects communication contention To achieve an awareness of contention, scheduling heuristics must recognize the actualities of the parallel system and consequently adapt the target system model Only a few scheduling algorithms have been proposed, having a target system view different from the classic model and thereby considering contention These approaches
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