Figure 21 SIMD (a) and MIMD (b) architecture in .NET

Generation QR-Code in .NET Figure 21 SIMD (a) and MIMD (b) architecture
Figure 21 SIMD (a) and MIMD (b) architecture
Recognizing QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in .NET framework applications.
PARALLEL ARCHITECTURES
Create Denso QR Bar Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET framework applications.
independently of each other and execute independent instructions on different data streams A parallel execution of a global task (ie, the collaboration of the processing elements) is achieved through synchronization and data exchange between the PEs via the interconnection network Examples for MIMD architectures are given in the following discussion of memory architectures An MIMD architecture can simulate an SIMD architecture by executing the same program on all the processors, which is called SPMD (single program multiple data) mode In general, however, executing the same program on all processors is not the same as executing the same instruction stream, since processors might execute different parts of the same program depending on their processor identi cation numbers The term processor stands here for the combination of control unit plus processing element From now on, this de nition of a processor shall be used, if not otherwise stated As mentioned earlier, modern parallel systems often consist of multiple vector processors, for example, the Cray J90 or the NEC SX-6 (van der Steen and Dongarra [193]) The Earth Simulator, a NEC SX-6 based system, was the world s fastest computer in 2002 2004 [186] Within Flynn s taxonomy, these systems can be considered to have an MIMD architecture with an SIMD subarchitecture 212 Memory Architectures It is generally agreed that not all aspects of parallel architectures are taken into account by Flynn s taxonomy For both the design and the programming model of a parallel system, the memory organization is a very important issue not considered by that classi cation The memory organization of a parallel system can be divided into two aspects: the location and the access policy of the memory Regarding the location, memory is either centralized or distributed with the processors For both cases, systems with a common memory, distributed or not, to which all processors have full access, are called shared-memory machines In systems where there is no such shared memory, processors have to use explicit means of communication like message passing With these two aspects of memory organization in mind, the three most common memory organizations can be examined Centralized Memory In a centralized memory multiprocessor, illustrated in Figure 22, memory is organized as a central resource for all processors This typically results in a uniform memory access (UMA) characteristic, where the access time to any memory location is identical for every processor Since the common memory can be accessed by all processors, these systems are called centralized shared-memory multiprocessors (Hennessy and Patterson [88]) Due to the UMA characteristic, systems with this architecture are also often called symmetric multiprocessors (SMP) Distributed Memory The alternative to a centralized architecture is an architecture where the memory is physically distributed with the processors These systems can be further distinguished according to their memory access policy
Decode QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In VS .NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
PARALLEL SYSTEMS AND PROGRAMMING
Draw Bar Code In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for VS .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Figure 22 Centralized memory multiprocessor
Decode Barcode In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Figure 23 Distributed memory multiprocessors: (a) shared-memory and (b) message passing (memory access goes through processors)
Generating QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In Visual C#
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET applications.
A distributed shared-memory multiprocessor (Hennessy and Patterson [88]), as illustrated in Figure 23(a), integrates the distributed memories into a global address space Every processor has full access to the memory; however, in general with a nonuniform memory access (NUMA) characteristic, as reading from or writing to, local memory is faster than from and to remote memory Systems without shared memory are called distributed memory multiprocessors or, according to the way the processors communicate, message passing architectures1 (Culler and Singh [48]) Figure 23(b) displays a distributed memory multiprocessor without shared memory The difference to the distributed shared-memory multiprocessor is that the local memories are only accessible through the respective processors Memory Hierarchy Some distributed memory systems, especially large systems with shared memory, often use some kind of hierarchy for the memory organization A common example is that a small number of processors (2 4) share one central memory the processors and the memory comprise a computing node and
Draw QR Code In .NET
Using Barcode creator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in ASP.NET applications.
1 To distinguish the two distributed memory architectures, the supplements shared-memory or message passing shall be used Otherwise both types are meant
Encoding Denso QR Bar Code In VB.NET
Using Barcode drawer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET framework applications.
GS1 - 12 Creation In .NET Framework
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create GS1 - 12 image in .NET framework applications.
UCC-128 Generator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create GS1-128 image in VS .NET applications.
GTIN - 13 Maker In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create EAN-13 Supplement 5 image in ASP.NET applications.
Recognize GS1 - 12 In .NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
Code 128B Generation In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in VS .NET applications.
Barcode Creation In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create bar code image in ASP.NET applications.