Equation 11 YCbCr/RGB Color space Conversion in .NET framework

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Equation 11 YCbCr/RGB Color space Conversion
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Y = 0299R + 0587G + 0114B Cb = -01687R - 03313G + 05B + 2Sample Precision/2 Cr = 05R - 04187G - 00813B + 2Sample Precision/2 R = Y + 1402Cr G = Y - 034414(Cb-2Sample Precision/2)-071414(Cr-2Sample Precision/2) B = Y + 1722(Cb - 2Sample Precision/2)
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Figure 16 Color Image Separated into Its Y, Cb, and Cr Components
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Introduction equal, YCbCr concentrates the most important information in one component This makes it possible to get greater compression by including more data from the Y component than from the Cb and Cr components CMYK Color Model One other color model worth mentioning at this point is a four-component model known as CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black), which is frequently used in color printing Most printing is done on white paper with ink added to create darker colors This is the opposite of what happens on a computer monitor The CMYK colorspace follows the printing model The components represent the four inks commonly used in color printing The color models we have looked at so far are known as additive, which means the components add light to the image The higher the component values are, the closer the color is to white However, in CMYK, larger component values represent colors close to black This is known as subtractive Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the complements for red, blue, and green A pure cyan surface absorbs all the red light directed at it If yellow and magenta inks are combined, they absorb the green and blue light, which results in red Cyan, magenta, and yellow combine to absorb all light, resulting in black in theory, anyway In practice, cyan, magenta, and yellow inks do not combine on a white piece of paper to produce a pure black Even if you could get a good shade of black by combining colors, it would require three times as much ink as simply using black alone Since most printing is done in black anyway, it makes sense to use black ink to produce black and shades of gray On a computer monitor, the relationship between RGB and CMYK can be approximated as shown in Equation 12 K = (2Sample Precision/2 - 1) - MAX(R,G,B) C = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1) - R - K Y = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1) - G - K M = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1 ) - B - K R = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1) - K - C G = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1) - K - Y B = (2SamplePrecision/2 - 1 ) - K - M
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Equation 12 CMYK/RGB Colorspace Conversion
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When the C, M, and Y component values are equal, the color is a shade of gray Notice how the conversion from RGB to CMYK replaces cyan, magenta, and yellow ink with shades of gray produced by black ink The result of this substitution is that at least one of the CMY components will always be zero if this conversion process is followed exactly as shown here The CMYK color model does not require the value of one component to be zero this is simply a result
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True Color versus Palette
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of converting from RGB Applications that use the CMYK color model will allow any combination of component values to give complete control over the printed colors and allow for variations among various types of ink Another thing to notice about the CMYK color model is that there is not a one-to-one mapping between it and RGB Instead, multiple CMYK values map to the same RGB value
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True Color versus Palette The examples in this book assume that the output device uses the RGB color model to display images and that each component is represented using 8 bits and is in the range 0-2553 This is the color representation used by most personal computer systems Such a system can produce 16,777,216 (2563) distinct colors There are computer systems that use more bits to represent color, for example the 12-bit grayscale frequently used for medical images Some image formats support data with more than 8 bits per component (12 for JPEG, 16 for PNG) For the remainder of this discussion we are going to assume that you are working on a system that uses 8 bits per component Two methods are commonly used to assign one of the possible colors to a pixel The simplest is to store the color value for each pixel in the compressed data For images with 24 bits per pixel, each pixel has a 3-byte color value associated with it Images that use 24 bits or more are called true color because over the range of colors a monitor can display, 24 bits per pixel is the limit of color differences that a human can distinguish The problem with 24-bit graphics is that while a system may be capable of displaying 16,777,216 different colors, it may not be able to do so simultaneously Older computers may not even have a video card capable of using a 24-bit display mode Newer computers may not have enough video memory to operate in 24-bit mode at higher screen resolutions A display on a personal computer set at a resolution of 1024 768 pixels would require 2,359,296 (1024 768 3 = 225 MB) of video memory to display 24-bit images If the computer had only 2 MB of video memory it could not display 24-bit images at this resolution but could do so at a lower resolution of 800 x 600 (800 600 3 = 14 MB) The solution devised to represent colors before the days of displays capable of 24 bits per pixel was to define a color palette that selects a subset of the possible colors Conceptually the palette is a 1-dimensional array of 3-byte elements that specify the color Rather than directly specifying the color, each pixel value is an index into the color palette The most common size for a palette is 256 entries where each pixel value consists of 8 bits Most computers today can
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3 To avoid dealing too deeply with specific system implementations, this section contains some simplifications as to the behavior of display devices
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