Monitoring Access to Apache in .NET

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8 Monitoring Access to Apache
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Knowing the status and the configuration information of your server is helpful in managing the server, but knowing who or what is accessing your Web site(s) is also very important, as well as exciting You can learn this information by using the logging features of Apache server The following sections discuss how logging works and how to get the best out of Apache logging modules As Web-server software started appearing in the market, many Web server loganalysis programs started appearing as well These programs became part of the everyday work life of many Web administrators Along with all these came the era of log file incompatibilities, which made log analysis difficult and cumbersome; a single analysis program didn t work on all log files Then came the Common Log Format (CLF) specification This enabled all Web servers to write logs in a reasonably similar manner, making log analysis easier from one server to another By default, the standard Apache distribution includes a module called mod_log_ config, which is responsible for the basic logging, and it writes CLF log files by default You can alter this behavior using the LogFormat directive However, CLF covers logging requirements in most environments The contents of each line in a CLF log file are explained in the paragraphs that follow The CLF log file contains a separate line for each request A line is composed of several tokens separated by spaces:
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host ident authuser date request status bytes
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If a token does not have a value, then it is represented by a hyphen (-) Tokens have these meanings: authuser: If the requested URL required a successful Basic HTTP authentication, then the user name is the value of this token bytes: The number of bytes in the object returned to the client, excluding all HTTP headers date: The date and time of the request host: The fully qualified domain name of the client, or its IP address ident: If the IdentityCheck directive is enabled and the client machine runs identd, then this is the identity information reported by the client request: The request line from the client, enclosed in double quotes ( ) status: The three-digit HTTP status code returned to the client
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See Appendix A for a list of all HTTP/11 status codes
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Part II Web Site Administration
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The date field can have this format:
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date = [day/month/year:hour:minute:second zone]
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The date field sizes are given in Table 8-1
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Table 8-1 Date Field Sizes
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Fields Day Month Year Hour Minute Second Zone Value 2 digits 3 letters 4 digits 2 digits 2 digits 2 digits (`+ | `- ) 4*digit
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The following sections give you a look at the directives that can be used with mod_log_config There are four directives available in this module
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TransferLog directive
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TransferLog sets the name of the log file or program where the log information is to be sent By default, the log information is in the CLF format This format can be customized using the LogFormat directive Note that when the TransferLog directive is found within a virtual host container, the log information is formatted using the last LogFormat directive found within the context If a LogFormat directive is not found in the same context, however, the server s log format is used
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Syntax: TransferLog filename Default setting: none
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| | path_to_external/program
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Context: server config, virtual host The TransferLog directive takes either a log file path or a pipe to an external program as the argument The log filename is assumed to be relative to the ServerRoot setting if no leading / character is found For example, if the ServerRoot is set to /etc/httpd, then the following tells Apache to send log information to the /etc/ httpd/logs/accesslog file:
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TransferLog logs/accesslog
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8 Monitoring Access to Apache
When the argument is a pipe to an external program, the log information is sent to the external program s standard input (STDIN)