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/sbin/lids -A -s /bin/login -o /etc/shadow -j READ
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23 Creating a High-Availability Network
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Allowing append-only access
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Typically, programs only need append-only access to critical system logs such as /var/log/messages or /var/log/secure You can enable append-only mode for these two files with the following commands:
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/sbin/lids -A -o /var/log/messages -j APPEND /sbin/lids -A -o /var/log/secure -j APPEND
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Allowing write-only access
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To allow a program called /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd to be able to write to a protected directory called /home/httpd, run the following commands:
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/sbin/lids -A -o /home/httpd -j DENY /sbin/lids -A -s /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -o /home/httpd -j READ
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Deleting an ACL
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To delete all the ACL rules, run the /sbin/lidsadm -Z command To delete individual ACL rule, simply specify the subject (if any) and/or the object of the ACL For example, if you run the /sbin/lidsadm -D -o /bin command, all the ACL rules with /bin as the object is deleted However, if you run the /sbin/lidsadm -D -s /bin/login -o /bin command, only the ACL that specifies /bin/login as the subject and /bin as the object is deleted
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Specifying the -Z or the -D option without any argument deletes all your ACL rules
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A good file and directory protection scheme
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In this section I show you a good protection schema that you can use with LIDS This schema allows you to make the /boot directory (or partition) read only, which means that kernel cannot be modified by intruders; it makes the system library directory /lib, root user s home directory /root, system configuration directory /etc, system daemon binaries directory /sbin and /usr/sbin, standard binaries directory /usr/bin and /bin read-only as well It also only allows append operations for files in /var/log directory, which ensures that log files are not destroyed by any intruders This configuration is shown below:
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# Make the /boot directory or partition read-ony /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /boot -j READ # Make the system library directory read-only # This protects the lib/modules as well /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /lib -j READ # Make the root user s home directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /root -j READ # Make the system configuration directory read-only
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Part VI Tuning for Performance and Scalability
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/sbin/lidsadm -A -o /etc -j READ # Make the daemon binary directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /sbin -j READ # Make the other daemon binary directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /usr/sbin -j READ # Make the general binary directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /bin -j READ # Make the other general binary directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /usr/bin -j READ # Make the general library directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /usr/lib -j READ # Make the system log directory append-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /var/log -j APPEND # Make the X Windows binary directory read-only /sbin/lidsadm -A -o /usr/X11R6/bin -j READ
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In addition to protecting your files and directories by using the above technique, LIDS can use the Linux Capabilities to limit the capabilities of a running program (that is, process) In a traditional Linux system, the root user (that is, user with UID and GID set to 0) has all the Capabilities or the ability to perform any task by running any process LIDS uses Linux Capabilities to break down all the power of the root (or processes run by root user) into pieces so that you can fine-tune what a specific process can or cannot do To find out more about what Linux Capabilities are available, see the /usr/include/linux/capabilityh header file Table 23-5 lists of all Linux Capabilities and their status (turned on or off) in the default LIDS Capabilities configuration file /etc/lids/lidscap
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Table 23-5 List of Linux Capabilities
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Capability ID Capability Name Meaning Status in /etc/lids/ lidscap Allow Allow Allow
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CAP_CHOWN CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH
Allow/disallow the changing of file ownership Allow/disallow override of all DAC access restrictions Allow/disallow override of all DAC restrictions regarding read and search
23 Creating a High-Availability Network
Capability ID Capability Name
Meaning
Status in /etc/lids/ lidscap Allow
CAP_FOWNER
Allow/disallow the following restrictions that the effective user ID shall match the file owner ID when setting the S_ISUID and S_ISGID bits on a file; that the effective group ID shall match the file owner ID when setting such bit on a file Allow/disallow access when the effective user ID does not equal owner ID Allow/disallow sending of signals to processes belonging to others Allow/disallow changing of the GID Allow/disallow changing of the UID Allow/disallow the transferring and removal of current set to any PID Allow/disallow the modification of immutable and append-only files