Managing Apache from the command-line in .NET

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Managing Apache from the command-line
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If you do not run Apache as a service, you can start, stop, or restart Apache from a console (often called a DOS window) by using the following commands To start Apache, run Apache -k start from the Apache binary directory, which is C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache by default To gracefully restart Apache, run Apache -k restart from the Apache binary directory, which is C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache by default To stop Apache, run Apache -k stop from the Apache binary directory, which is C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache by default You can also use Apache -shutdown command to do the same To run Apache with a nondefault configuration file, specify the file name by using the -f option For example, to run Apache by using c:\test\ new-httpdconf, run the Apache -f c:\test\new-httpdconf -k start command from the directory with the Apache binaries in it
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Part V Running Apache on Windows
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Running multiple Apache services
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Under Windows, Apache normally runs only two processes: one to service all the HTTP requests using multiple threads and a second process to monitor the first process If the first dies, the second process (the one responsible for monitoring the first) will restart the first process However, you can still run multiple primary Apache servers that use different httpdconf files from the command-line of the Apache binary directory (the default is C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache) as follows:
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Apache -f path_to_httpdconf
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For example, you can create two primary Apache services, one that responds to port 80 and one that responds to port 8080, by creating two httpdconf files You can run each of these services by using the above command However, on Windows 2000 or NT systems, a default Apache service is already installed, so you can simply modify the C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache\conf\httpdconf to reflect the port change and save it as another file Then you only have to run one Apache instance using the above command The default Apache configuration can still run on port 80 To create a new Apache service, run the following command from the Apache binary directory (the default is C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache):
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Apache -n new_service_name -f path_to_httpdconf -k install
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Running this command installs a new service called new_service_name, which will use the path_to_httpdconf path You can also remove an existing Apache service by using the Apache -n existing_ service_name -k uninstall command
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Configuring Apache for Windows
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he majority of the information found in the previous chapters does apply to Apache on Windows However, there are certain differences between Apache for Windows and Apache for Unix because of the underlying differences in how Unix systems and Windows systems work This chapter discusses those differences
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C H A P T E R
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In This
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How httpdconf on Windows differs from httpdconf on Unix Tuning Apache for performance Testing Apache configuration Managing Apache with Comanche
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Windows httpdconf Syntax
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The httpdconf file for a Unix system and Windows system differ because of how Windows treats pathnames The differences are: On Windows systems, directory and filenames in a path are separated by backslashes For example, c:\temp is a valid directory path However, Apache internally still uses a forward slash as the path separator, so you still have to use the forward slash For example, c:/temp is correct in the httpdconf file but c:\temp is not The Windows path often includes whitespaces For example, c:\Program Files\Apache Group\ Apache\htdocs is an acceptable path in Windows world When using such path names in the httpdconf file, double quote the entire path For example:
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ServerRoot C:/Program Files/ Apache Group/Apache
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Here, the ServerRoot directive is set to point to the C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache directory
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Part V Running Apache on Windows
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Tuning Apache for Performance
Apache on Windows was multithreaded even before Apache 20 This is because Windows systems such as Windows 2000 and Windows NT perform better with threads than they perform with a bunch of child processes constituting a service On Windows systems, Apache runs using only two processes A parent process monitors a child process, which is responsible for servicing all requests using multiple threads To control how many simultaneous requests Apache can serve under Windows, you need to tune the ThreadsPerChild directive See 4 for details on this directive This directive controls the number of threads that can be created by the sole Apache child process responsible for all requests The default value of 50 should be fine for most sites If you require a higher response rate, make sure you have the appropriate system resources such as sufficient RAM and a fast CPU to backup your rate requirements According to the source code for the winnt MPM module, you should be able to set this to a maximum of 4096 threads Most likely, a number below 256 is more appropriate for most Web sites The MaxRequestsPerChild directive limits the number of requests that a child process can handle (see 4 for details on this directive) Because a single child processes all the requests via threads under Windows, this directive should be either set to a very high number or to 0, which means the child process will never exit