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Caution
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Do not allow anyone (including the Apache user or group) to read, write, or execute files in the log directory specified in CustomLog and ErrorLog directives
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Always make sure that you take a minimalist approach to allowing access to new directories that are accessible via the Web Also ensure that you do not allow Web visitors to view any directory listings You can hide your directory listings using the methods discussed later
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Directory index file
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Whenever a user requests access to a directory via the Web, Apache does one of the following: 1 Checks whether the directory is accessible If it is, it continues; otherwise, it displays an error message 2 After it has determined that the directory is accessible, it looks for the directory index file specified by using the DirectoryIndex directive By default, this file is indexhtml If it can read this file in the requested directory, the contents of the file are displayed In the event that such a file does not exist, Apache checks whether it can create a dynamic listing for the directory If it is allowed to create a dynamic listing, it creates it and displays the contents of the directory to the user Because an Apache-created dynamically generated directory listing provides potential bad guys with clues about your directory structure, you should not allow such listings The simplest way to avoid creating a dynamic directory listing is to create a file with the filename specified in DirectoryIndex directive For example, if you set DirectoryIndex as follows:
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DirectoryIndex indexhtml indexhtm
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Apache will first look for indexhtml in the requested directory of the URL, and then it will look for indexhtm if indexhtml is missing However, a common reasons why many Web sites have exposed directories is that when the new directory is created, the creator forgets to create the index file or uploads an index file with the wrong case, such as INDEXHTML or INDEXHTM
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If this happens frequently, you can use a CGI script to automatically redirect users to your home page or to an internal search engine interface Simply modify the DirectoryIndex directive to be:
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DirectoryIndex indexhtml indexhtm /cgi-bin/indexpl
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Now add a CGI script such as the one shown in Listing 18-1 in the ScriptAliasspecified directory
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Listing 18-1: indexpl
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#!/usr/bin/perl # # Purpose: this script is used to redirect # users who enter a URL that points to # directories without indexhtml page # use CGI qw(:standard); # Set the automatically redirect URL my $AUTO_REDIRECT_URL = / ; # Get the current URL path my $curDir = $ENV{REQUEST_URI}; # If the current URL path is not home page (/) then # redirect user to home page if ($curDir ne / ){ print redirect($AUTO_REDIRECT_URL); # # # } } exit 0; If the home page is also missing the index page, we can t redirect back to home page (to avoid recursive redirection), so display an error message else { print header; print HOME PAGE NOT FOUND! ;
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This script runs after Apache fails to find the directory index files (indexhtml or indexhtm) The script simply redirects a user whose URL points to a directory with no index file to the Web site s home page
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Part IV Securing Your Web Site
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Make sure to change /cgi-bin/ from the path of the above directive if you use a different alias name If you do not wish to display any directory listings at all, you can simply disable directory listing by setting the following configuration:
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<Directory /> Options -Indexes </Directory >
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The Options directive tells Apache to disable all directory index processing
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It might also be a good idea to tell Apache to not follow symbolic links because such links can accidentally expose part of the disk space that you do not want to make public To disable the following of symbolic links by Apache, set the Options directive to -FollowSymLinks
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Disabling default access
A good security model dictates that no default access exists, so get into the habit of permitting no access at first Permit specific access only to specific directories To implement no default access, use the following configuration segment in httpdconf: