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http://wwwdomaincom/~joe/cgi-bin/searchcgi author=kabir
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Here ([a-z]+) will map one or more lowercase characters following the tilde mark (~) to $1 In other words, this regular expression enables us to capture everything between the tilde (~) and the trailing forward slash (/) after the username So, $1 is set to joe for the above example Note that the ^ ensures that the directive is only applied to URLSs that starts with ~, as shown in the above example The next regular expression in the directive is (*), which maps everything following the /cgi-bin/ to $2 So, $2 is set to searchcgi author=kabir Now Apache can create the physical path of the CGI program directory by using:
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/home/$1/public_html/cgi-bin/$2
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This regular expression results in the following path for the previous example:
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/home/joe/public_html/cgi-bin/searchcgi author=kabir
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Because this is where the CGI program searchcgi is kept, it executes and returns output to the Web client If you are not fond of having the CGI program directory under public_html (that is, the UserDir-specified directory), you can keep it outside of that directory by removing the public_html part of the expression as follows:
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ScriptAliasMatch ^~([a-z]+)/cgi-bin/(*) /home/$1/cgi-bin/$2
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12 Running CGI Scripts
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This will map the following example URL request:
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http://wwwdomaincom/~joe/cgi-bin/searchcgi author=kabir
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to the following physical file:
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/home/joe/cgi-bin/searchcgi author=kabir
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Of course, if you are not fond of keeping a user subdirectory world-readable (that is, public_html), you can remedy this by creating a Web partition (or a directory) for your users and giving them individual directories to host their home pages Here is an example:
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ScriptAliasMatch ^~([a-z]+)/cgi-bin/(*) /www/$1/cgi-bin/$2
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This matches requests to /www/username/cgi-bin/scriptname and since because this directory is not in the user s home directory (/home/username), you might be able to exercise better control over it as a system administrator
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Creating new CGI extensions by using AddType
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If you want to create new CGI program extensions in a particular directory, you can also use the htaccess (or the file specified by the AccessFileName directive) Before you can add new extensions using the per-directory access control file (htaccess), you have to create a <Directory> container as follows:
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<Directory /path/to/your/directory > Options ExecCGI -Indexes AllowOverride FileInfo </Directory>
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The first directive inside the directory container tells Apache that you want to enable CGI program execution in this directory and disables the directory-listing feature for security The second directive tells Apache to enable the FileInfo feature in the per-directory access control file (htaccess) This feature enables you to use the AddType directive in the per-directory access control file To add a new CGI program extension (wizard), all you need to do is create an htaccess (or whatever you specified in AccessFileName directive) file in the directory with the following:
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AddType application/x-httpd-cgi wizard
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Then, rename an existing CGI program in that directory to have the wizard extension, and request it via your browser Make sure all of the file permission settings for the directory and the CGI programs are set to read and execute by Apache
Part III Running Web Applications
Running CGI Programs
Chances are that if you are an Apache administrator, you will have to set up CGI programs, or you may even know how to write them In this section, I discuss the basics for creating very simple CGI programs Because this is a not a CGI programming book, I do not provide in-depth coverage of CGI programming My focus is on revealing things about CGI programs that will help an Apache administrator manage his or her CGI-capable Web sites better Many of the examples in this section use Perl If you do not have Perl on your system, you can obtain the source, or possibly the binaries, from wwwperlcom Whenever possible, it is good to compile binaries for a system rather than trusting binaries that have been created by someone else
Writing CGI Scripts in Perl
CGI scripting is synonymous to Perl scripting; in my humble opinion, Perl is the king of all scripting languages, and it was Perl that popularized CGI scripting became widely popular due to Perl As a yet another Perl hacker, I have written Perl-based CGI scripts since 1995, and I still continue to use Perl for small- to mid -range Web solutions Because this is a not a Perl programming book, I do not cover how to write Perl scripts in general Instead, I will discuss how you can write CGI scripts in Perl If you are not familiar with Perl, I recommend that you read a Perl programming book as soon as possible When writing CGI scripts in Perl, the following set of guidelines or programming style should be followed They are as follows: Separate contents and logic keep contents out of scripts Use HTML or XML templates to ensure that the interface aspect of your CGI script is not in the scripts themselves This will make ensure that a nonprogrammer user, such as a graphics or HTML expert, can change the interface easily Use configuration files never hardcode customizable information in a script Use a configuration file to read in the information This will allow your scripts to be more flexible Normalize user data when collecting data from users for future use, make sure you normalize the data before storing in files or database For example, if you collect e-mail addresses from your visitors, it would be a good idea to normalize each e-mail address in a preferred case (upper or lower) and fix user omissions and data entry errors I have seen make instances of where AOL users writing their e-mail addresses in Web forms without the com or putting extra spaces between the @ and the name or the host name I have also seen thousands of instances where users enter their name in either upper case or lower case Just think of the impression it will leave on them when you customize a newsletter using an un-normalized name (which the user himself