Interstellar Polarization in .NET framework

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10 Interstellar Polarization
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results was given by Wolff, Clayton & Meade (1993) Their general conclusion was that the MRN-bare silicate grain model (see below) was most successful in tting the data The polarization bump at the extinction dip was considered in terms of a graphite grain component The apparent necessity of aligning both small silicate and graphite grains seems to raise questions about theories of grain alignment mechanisms The interstellar extinction over the wavelength range 011 m < < 1 m was modelled by Mathis, Rumpl & Nordsieck (1977) using a conglomeration of particle types with a size distribution (MRN distribution) described by a power law expressed as f (a) D f 0 a q , the value of q being in the range 33 to 36 It was found that graphite was a necessary component of any satisfactory mixture Assuming the Davis Greenstein alignment mechanism, the expected polarization was calculated by considering cylinders made of various dielectric materials mixed with spherical graphite particles Although the extinction behaviour provided satisfactory ts to observations, the linear polarization displayed maxima in the deep ultraviolet To t both the polarization and extinction, it was necessary for the material generating the polarization to comprise fairly large, well-aligned particles, contributing little to the extinction Dielectric particles with coatings were also considered as satisfactory This approach to model tting was expanded further by Mathis (1979) In a study by Martin & Whittet (1990), by including measurements in the infrared, the universality of the spectral behaviour of both the extinction and polarization has been examined in a range of astrophysical situations They found that the polarization curve in the infrared seems independent of the wavelength, max , at which the value of p peaks in the optical region of the spectrum, implying that local variations in max , like the correlated variations in the ratio of R V , are caused by optical properties of the particles in the blue-visible domain of the spectrum rather than at infrared wavelengths
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105 Rotation of Position Angle
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From a selection of stars, Gehrels & Silvester (1965) showed that several displayed appreciable wavelength dependence of position angle, these generally at distances greater than 06 kpc The basic interpretations require either intrinsic effects related to the star combining with the interstellar component, or the lines of sight contain clouds comprising grains of various size, and with differing mean alignment directions A prediction of the latter effect being important had already been made by Treanor (1963) By extending their measurements into the ultraviolet and infrared, Coyne & Gehrels (1966) were able to con rm that, for some stars, the position angle of the polarization exhibited dispersion, the effect being explained by considering the light to traverse two or more discrete clouds with differing grain characteristics and alignments
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Stellar P larimetry
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The effect of rotation of position angle was again referred to by Serkowski, Gehrels & Wi sniewski (1969), the trend of the directions of rotation reversing at a galactic longitude of 144 At smaller longitudes, the position angles increase, and at longer longitudes, they decrease with increasing wavenumber, although there are deviations to the rule Using their polarization survey of the Southern Hemisphere with catalogued values from the Northern Hemisphere, Klare, Neckel & Schnur (1971) found that the dispersion in alignment of the polarization has well de ned minima at l D 140 and 320 In these directions where the p vectors for the stars are more regularly aligned, the line of sight is vertical to the magnetic eld Further colour observations of early-type stars in the galactic plane by Coyne & Wiskramasinghe (1969) revealed that about 25% of the stars in their survey exhibit a rotation of the position angle of the polarization with wavelength A dedicated observing programme to investigate the rotation of the position angle by the interstellar medium was undertaken by Coyne (1971) Of the 105 measured stars, 24 predominantly carried interstellar polarization with dispersion of the position angle A number of stars within 1 kpc of the Sun, and in the direction of the Perseus arm, exhibited dispersion; they formed two groups, locally separated, with rotation in opposite senses, the effect appearing to be a curiously local phenomenon
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