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In a short review paper, Hiltner (1956b) provided vector maps of zones in Cassiopeia and Cygnus In the former region, the polarizations were relatively large with well correlated position angles; for the latter region, the polarization was generally smaller, with the position angles well less correlated For M 29 (Cygnus), a strong correlation was observed between p and the colour excess, E(B V) For Cassiopeia, p /E(B V) D 018 provides the observable maximum values for p (expressed in magnitudes) A group of OB stars in the direction of the galactic centre was also observed by Hiltner (1954c) Again it was found that the interstellar polarization was greatest for the more highly reddened stars Several star clusters have been investigated by Serkowski (1965) Quite generally, the directions of vibration associated with each star of the particular cluster are very much co-aligned Study of the connection between p V and E B V shows that there are fairly distinct differences in cluster behaviours For example, comparisons are made of the behaviour of NGC 2422 with NGC 2437 (= M 46), the latter being more
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Fig 101 Measurements of p (mags) plotted against A V for six regions along the galactic equator The dashed line, given by p /A V D 006, represents an upper limit of the envelope In the galactic longitude region of l D 75 to 85 , the p, A V values are dis-
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persed but, in the region l D 95 to 1025 , the data are more compact and closer to the envelope boundary, this latter region offering alignment of position angles with small dispersion (From Hiltner, 1956a)
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Fig 102 The relationship between the maximum interstellar polarization, p max (%), and colour excess, E(B V ) , is depicted for a variety of stars A straight line denoting the upper limit of the data spread corresponds to p max /E(B V ) D 90 The symbols N, ,
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and 4 correspond to max values, 051 m, 052 054 m, 055 057 m and 058 m, respectively Symbols for stars nearer than 04 kpc are crossed with a horizontal bar (From Serkowski, Mathewson & Ford, 1975)
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strongly reddened and three times more distant, but without exhibiting larger polarization; the angular distance between the two clusters is only 1 3 From all of the data, it is suggested that the maximum ratio of polarization to reddening is given by p V /E(B V ) D 0195 From polarimetric studies, Dyck & McClure (1969) were able to show that, by using an upper limit for the polarization-reddening ratio given by p /E(B V) 0195, any reddening of the clusters M 3 and M 13 is insigni cant Broadband measurements of stars exhibiting interstellar polarization display a smooth variation with a peak, p max , somewhere within the visual range of the spectrum In Figure 102, values of p max are plotted against the colour excess, E(B V) , for stars measured by Serkowski, Mathewson & Ford (1975) The boundary marked by p max (%) D 90E(B V ) is clearly de ned Serkowski (1968) found that the ratio p V /p B was well correlated with the ratio of colour excesses, E(V I ) /E(V R) Later, Serkowski, Gehrels & Wi sniewski (1969) presented clear correlations of polarization ratios measured in different colours with respect to colour excess ratios
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As colour measurements became more precise, it was found that, for each star, p ( ) displays a maximum value at some point in the middle part of the optical
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spectrum In discussions of the spectral behaviour of p, it became convenient to describe the maximum value for any star as p max , occurring at some wavelength given by max From early measurements made by Serkowski (1968), it was found that p max is shifted towards longer wavelengths for higher values of R, the ratio of total to selective extinction (A V /E(B V ) ) Later, Serkowski, Mathewson & Ford (1975) reported on UBVR measurements for 180 stars, mainly in the Southern Hemisphere They found a correlation between R and max , with the relationship that R D 55 max They commented that polarimetry seems to be the most practical method of estimating R in any region of the sky Several of the observed stars revealed a wavelength dispersion of the position angle, and two stars (No 12 in association VI Cygni and HD 204827) displayed high levels of circular polarization Partly by noting that R is correlated with max , Whittet (1977) has shown that its value is systematically higher in the Southern Milky Way He has shown that its dependence on galactic longitude has sinusoidal form and expressible as R(l) D R0 C R1 sin(l C ), where R0 D 308 003, R1 D 017 006 and D 175 20 The effect can be explained simply by there being a variation in the mean size of the dust grains in the local spiral arm This work was followed by a research note by Whittet (1979) in which the analysis was conducted in a little more detail, showing that the max variation with galactic longitude is a local phenomenon produced by grains within 500 pc of the Sun, with the high max stars very likely being associated with Gould s belt The properties of the ISM along lines of sight known to have high values of max have been studied by Cohen (1977), and she con rmed the hypothesis that these regions contain particles where the grain size is abnormally large, corresponding to the densest parts of the interstellar medium It was suggested that the grains grow by accretion from the gas, and not by coalescence of previously existing grains Vrba, Coyne & Tapia (1993) have made a comprehensive study of the Ophiuchi dark cloud, including polarimetric measurements It was found that R scales with max at the rate of R D 57 max , this being consistent with other studies They conclude that the grain size, as deduced from max , increases with optical depth in a manner consistent with a simple model of turbulence-driven coagulative grain growth A study of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud by Whittet, Gerakines, Carkner, et al (1994) revealed that the highest values of max are found in lines of sight that intercept the dense central region of the cloud The value of R was only weakly correlated with max , suggesting a degree of independence among the populations of grains responsible for optical extinction and polarization The ratio of p max /A V ' 45 % mag 1 is unusually high in some lines of sight, indicating a remarkable degree of alignment ef ciency in comparison with other dark clouds The mean direction of the magnetic eld in the plane of the sky is perpendicular to the long axis of the cloud and parallel to the external eld in the galactic neighbourhood, suggesting that the cloud formed by uniform collapse along eld lines Special attention has been given by McMillan (1977) to polarimetry of the star Walker No 67 in NGC 2264 The value of p max of this star is very high at 55% with
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