Introduction and History in .NET

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1 Introduction and History
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surfaces are always inclined at an angle of 35 250 to the vertical direction of the ray These observations lead us to conclude that the light acquires in these circumstances properties which are independent of its inclination to the surface which re ects it, but are unique relatively to the sides of the vertical ray These are the same for the South and North sides, and different from the East and West sides Giving to the sides the names of poles, I will describe as POLARISATION the modi cation which gives to the light its properties relatively to these poles
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A translation and extension of the latter paragraph of the original article can also be found in Buchwald (1989):
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These observations lead us to conclude that light acquires in these circumstances properties that are independent of its direction with respect to the re ecting surface and that are the same for the south and north sides (of the ray), and different for the east and west sides In calling these sides poles, I will call polarization the modi cation that gives light properties relative to these poles I waited until now (two and a half years) before admitting this term in the description of the physical phenomena in question; I dared not introduce it in the M moires wherein I published my latest experiments; but their varieties presented by this new phenomenon and the dif culties in describing them force me to admit this new expression, which simply signi es the modi cation light is subject to on acquiring new properties that are related not to the direction of the ray, but only to its sides taken at right angles and a plane perpendicular to its direction
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The plane of the meridian, de ned by the incident ray and the ray re ected from the rst surface, was later selected to describe the plane of polarization Today we know that light has an electromagnetic nature and that the E component is usually the more important in general optical interactions rather than the H vector According to Malus experiments it turns out that the E vector oscillates normal to the plane of incidence and that the early de nition of the plane of polarization corresponded to the H vector Modern usage now has the plane of polarization at right angles to the plane of incidence as de ned in Malus experiment, although there are some texts, usually old ones, that carry the original de nition In the second memoir, Malus (1810c) describes the partial polarization transmitted through glass being a mixture of unpolarized light and light polarized in a plane at right angles to the plane of polarization of the re ected ray He also describes the use of a series of parallel plates, or pile-of-plates, to produce more complete polarization of the transmitted beam The third memoir (Malus, 1810d) describes the occurrence of double refraction in all crystals except those belonging to the cubic system, and in all vegetable and animal substances that were tested With his simple, but fundamental, observation in a Paris street, followed up with some simple laboratory experiments, Malus, in these great eureka moments,
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had discovered that light contained an orientational property that was common to beams emerging from what we now refer to as birefringent crystals and to beams being re ected by material surfaces He discussed the exciting discovery of the similarities of such beams in terms of the wave theory of Huyghens and the corpuscular theory of Newton No doubt he was aware of Newton s description of double refraction (see above), and it was therefore natural to describe the phenomena in terms of forces acting on the corpuscules of light and to describe light beams subject to such forces in their modi cation by refraction or re ection as being polarized In the paper presented to La Classe des Sciences Math matiques de l Institut Imp rial de France on 18 February 1811, Arago (1858a) neatly sums up the discovery of Malus by saying:
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La lumi re se polarise non-selement dans l acte de la double r fraction, mais encore dans d autres circonstances tr sremarquable que Malus a d couvertes
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The Count Rumford Medal for 1810 was awarded by the Royal Society to Malus for his work on double refraction, it being noteworthy that excellent scienti c interchange was able to exist between two countries suffering strong political divides The letter of announcement to Malus written by Thomas Young was dated 22 March 1811 The rst usage of the term and its extension within an article in English is in Nicholson s Journal (1811), Volume: XXX page 192, with a letter from Paris saying:
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