Stars within Nebulosities and Stellar Discs in VS .NET

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1511 Stars within Nebulosities and Stellar Discs
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One of the most spectacular stellar nebulosities is associated with Carina Spectropolarimetry at H of the Homunculus nebula surrounding this nebula was undertaken by Meaburn, Walsh & Wolstencroft (1993) The spectral pro les were complex with structure dependent on position over the Homunculus The level of polarization was very high with p achieving 35% Scattering by dust with an out ow velocity of 650 km s 1 is invoked Further spectropolarimetry with a wavelength coverage of the optical with UV measurements from the Astro-2 Space Shuttle Mission was undertaken by Schulte-Ladbeck, Hillier, Clampin, et al (1997)
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Herbig-Haro objects have also had polarimetry directed to them Measurements by Strom, Strom & Kinman (1974) supported the idea that they are essentially re ection nebulae illuminated by heavily obscured young stars A study of H-H 100 by Vrba, Strom & Strom (1975) linked this re ection nebula to illumination by an infrared source The relationships of polarization and the presence of stellar discs has been mentioned earlier under several different category of stars In relation to young stellar objects, Scarrott, Gledhill & Rolph (1990) obtained vector polarization maps of the central regions of the associated re ection nebulae Based on the behaviour expected by scattering from illumination by a point source, deviations were apparent indicating the presence of circumstellar discs Bastien & M nard (1990) also obtained linear polarization maps, with patterns of aligned polarization vectors recorded close to the central objects The patterns have been interpreted in terms of multiple scattering in attened, optically thick structures These patterns provide direct evidence of circumstellar discs around young stellar objects The distribution of the inclinations of the discs is consistent with what is expected from modelling, and inclination angles and disc sizes compare well with values obtained by other means Imaging polarimetry has also been applied to pre-main sequence binaries by Monin, M nard & Peretto (2001), with their results determining the orientation of discs, particularly in T Tauri stars of which a large fraction are binary, or multiple stars Simulated polarization maps have been generated by Fischer, Henning & Yorke (1994) for two time windows of a 1M rotating molecular clump evolving into a protostar, surrounded by a disc and envelope The computed maps agree with the typical features of the observed polarization maps of circumstellar regions around young stellar objects
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1512 Gravitational Lensing
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Simmons, Willis & Newsam (1995) have considered the polarimetric signals that might be produced by gravitational microlensing events for a star, which displays a polarization variation across its disc, from the centre to its limb They comment that the rise in polarization generally takes place later than the rise of the total ux and that any suspected ampli cation of ux could be immediately monitored to provide con rmation of it being a lensing event By the nature of the generally low levels of limb polarization, and the fact that only a small fraction of this is involved in the lensing, any polarimetric signal will be very small
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15 General Stellar Variability
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1513 Extra-Solar Planets
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In some circumstances the scattered light from a gas planet may be substantially polarized As a consequence, the prospect of gaining image contrast between itself and its parent star is being considered Work on the development of such schemes involving polarimetric differential imaging has been presented by Brandner, Apai, Lenzen, et al (2005), Schmid, Gisler, Joos, et al (2005) and Stuik, Tinbergen, Joos, et al (2005) The possibility of detecting the scattered light of a planet orbiting a parent star, within the total brightness, has been considered by Seager, Whitney & Sasselov (2000) They have shown that polarimetric signals are highly dependent on the sizes and types of condensates in the planetary atmosphere The amplitudes of the variations have been predicted to be of the order of a few parts in 106 , being much lower than the regular instrumental detection limits Partly in response to such predictions, Hough, Lucas, Bailey, et al (2006) have developed a highly sensitive arrangement to investigate the possibility of detecting extra solar planets by polarimetry One successful technique, requiring a fortuitous geometry and viewing aspect, involves high-cadence photometry to monitor the brightness changes at the time of a transit of the planet on the stellar disc, with ingress and egress recorded In the case of HD 209458, Charbonneau, Brown, Latham, et al (2000) recorded brightness changes of 2% at these times Although it does not seem to have been aired, it may be noted that if the parent star of any such system exhibits limb polarization, then the transits will generate polarimetric signals Asymmetries in the behaviours of q and u between ingress and egress would allow determination of the inclination of the orbit as indicated in Figure 156 If a Stokes parameter reference frame is established such that Cve q is parallel to the radius between the star centre and the point of contact of ingress, then the limb polarization being normal to the radius will have a ve q value From circular symmetry, the overall intrinsic polarization associated with the star will be zero As the transit begins, some ve q will be blocked, causing a Cve value of q to emerge This signal will fall quickly as the planet s path crosses the stellar disc, but, at egress, a mirror image of the earlier variation would be apparent Over the complete transit event, the value of u should remain constant and zero For a viewing aspect which is not exactly in the orbital plane, the path of the planet across the stellar disc will not run along a projected diameter Such a scenario is sketched as (b) in Figure 156 At ingress, the behaviour of q will be much the same as for the earlier description At egress, however, the last contact point occurs where the limb polarization will have both q and u components, i e, the position angle of the polarization signal will be different to that at ingress As sketched in the gure, a situation has been depicted showing that most of the signal corresponds to a Cve u value, with little or no contribution associated with q In this case there
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