Stars With Magnetic Fields in .NET

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An example of its application to spectropolarimetry of Ap stars is provided by Wade, Donati, Mathys, et al (1998) The very active K0 dwarf, AB Dor, has been studied by the ZDI technique by Donati & Cameron (1997) with excellent success, revealing differential rotation affecting the imaging of its magnetic polarity patterns A short note of this work has also been given by Cameron, Donati & Semel (1997) Waite & Marsden (2007) have reported on ZDI at the Anglo-Australian Telescope, with results on two solar-type stars, one of them, HD 106506 exhibiting a giant spot region encircling a pole The reasons for its location is not fully known, but it is believed that the increased Coriolis force, due to rapid rotation, may have the effect of de ecting the spot features to higher latitudes as they erupt through the star s convection zone Using a simple dipole theory, Leone, Catanzaro & Catalano (2000) have determined the angle between the rotational and dipole axes, and the polar strength of the eld, of several magnetic stars They have also conducted simultaneous photometry, and have con rmed the importance of effects related to the nonhomogeneous distribution of elements on the stellar surface as the origin of the light variability
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123 Helium Rich/Weak Stars
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The peculiar variable helium-rich star, Ori, was observed by Landstreet & Borra (1978) who reported a magnetic eld varying between 2300 and C3100 G, with a period of 1d 19, matching that obtained from spectrometric and photometric variations of the star They interpreted the behaviour in terms of the oblique rotator model that has hot gas trapped in a magnetosphere above the magnetic equator and atmospheric helium enhancement which has occurred preferentially in a zone around the magnetic equator This notion was pursued by Clarke & McGale (1988) in analysing broadband polarization measurements of Kemp & Herman (1977) to provide a model involving the presence of an off-centred dipole magnetic eld, with concentrations of the scattering material occurring at the intersection of the rotational and magnetic equators In their original paper, Kemp & Herman (1977) modelled the polarimetric behaviour in terms of a binary system containing a highly non-spherical component such as a disc The helium strong star HD 184827 (B2V) has been studied under a contemporaneous project involving ultraviolet and optical spectrometry, and Zeeman polarimetry, by Barker, Brown, Bolton, et al (1982) A clear sinusoidally varying magnetic eld was detected, the period matching that determined by photometry, and by the changes in the stellar line pro les A survey of 27 helium-weak stars was conducted by Borra, Landstreet & Thompson (1983) using an H analyser With typical measurement errors of 100 to 400 G, elds were detected in 10 stars The fraction of He-weak stars showing large elds appeared to be larger than for Ap stars, but smaller than for He-strong stars
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124 White Dwarfs
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Following the notion that white dwarfs might be expected to possess magnetic elds of the order of 106 G, Angel & Landstreet (1970a) designed a polarimeter to investigate the presence of circularly polarized light of opposite senses in the alternate wings of the broad H line, any signature resulting from the Zeeman effect Their exploratory scheme provided a null result The detection of wide-band circularly polarized light (1 3%) from a white dwarf was rst reported by Kemp, Swedlund, Landstreet, et al (1970) for the semi-DC peculiar star, Grw C70 8247 The wavelength dependence of v appeared to correspond to that expected of a projected B eld, estimated at 1 107 G, based on the theory of gray-body magneto-emissivity (see Kemp, 1970a), this physical mechanism demonstrated in the laboratory by Kemp, Swedlund & Evans (1970) All previous searches providing null results had concentrated on the DA-type white dwarfs with H-lines This positive result was followed by the announcement by Landstreet & Angel (1971) of the discovery of circular polarization in G 99 37 They also provided a list of 24 white dwarfs which they had observed, but yielding null results Angel & Landstreet (1971a) found that a second white dwarf (G 195-19) displayed circular polarization, and this was con rmed by Kemp, Swedlund & Wolstencroft (1971) Angel & Landstreet (1971b) later showed that this object displayed variations with a period of 1d 34 Further measurements of G 195 19 were made by Angel, Illing & Landstreet (1972), these revealing a period of 1d 3309, with a sinusoidal v-curve for blue/green wavelengths For a red band, the variation in v was less sinusoidal, with a phase shift in the maximum polarization value relative to the behaviour at shorter wavelengths The observations are explainable by considering the star s magnetic eld as an off-centred dipole, with its axis not passing through the rotation axis Following the initial discovery of circular polarization associated with Grw C70 8247, further observations of this star were made by Angel & Landstreet (1970b) who extended the wavelength coverage, searching also for time-dependent variations, but with a null result A presence of linear polarization in the blue end of the spectrum, and a sharp drop in the circular component shortward of 4000 , was not explainable by the simple theory of magneto-emission With increased spectral resolution, Angel, Landstreet & Oke (1972) (see Figure 124) recorded sharp changes in the dispersion of the circular polarization, these associated with the structure of the Minkowski bands of molecular helium Bluewards of 6000 , the polarization remains constant with time, but redwards of this wavelength there appeared to be changes relative to the previous year For a star with a pure helium atmosphere, molecules could be formed in suf cient density to give the observed absorption features According to Angel (1972), the Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain the observed spectral features in the polarization, and may also be responsible for the continuum polarization Coyne (1974) undertook a search for linear polarization in the blue spectral region in 15 white dwarfs, but with no intrinsic effects being detectable
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