1162 IPACT: interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time
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The IPACT was rst introduced in  and it basically is one of the rst implementations of a PON protocol Like TUR (introduced much later), IPACT is also primarily suited for EPON
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DOWNSTREAM OLT TIME AXIS
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Piggy backed information ONU Side To A To C
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Figure 115 Protocol dissemination between OLT and ONU: TUR (transmission upon reception) 
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systems IPACT is a polling protocol, in the sense that an OLT proactively tells an ONU when to transmit The OLT is assumed to know the buffer state of each ONU, and the OLT then computes which ONU should be next scheduled for transmission The protocol assumes that the OLT knows the round trip transmission time (RTT) and hence is able to precisely tell each ONU when to transmit Some degree of synchronization is needed here, as the processing is done by just the OLT, the ONUs act as mere slaves, following somewhat strictly the OLT commands
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117 MPCP classi cations and requirements
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In this section we shall discuss the salient features that a good MPCP will provide to a PON system
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1171 Dynamic provisioning
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An MPCP should be able to dynamically provision services to ONUs on a real-time basis The dynamic nature of services often means that the service guarantees have to change with time The MPCP should be able to arbitrate bandwidth between multiple ONUs dynamically Further, optimal means of bandwidth arbitration are needed in order for the ONUs to ef ciently utilize the upstream bandwidth
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Since a large number of ONUs use the same upstream channel, fairness is a virtue that is essential for revenue bearing services Polling protocols are able to guarantee fairness to ONUs quite well Fairness here is de ned as the ratio of the net amount of time an ONU gets upstream transmission of the channel to the total time If there are K ONUs in a system, and
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Fiber in the Last Mile
the upstream line rate is C bits/s, then, in a fair system, each ONU should be able to service customers connected to it with a line speed of C/K bits/s without dropping any frames
Apart from the generic fairness guarantee, a PON protocol must also be able to meet any QoS needs of the ONUs Speci cally, QoS means that fairness is not totally achieved QoS needs may vary from bit rate speci c to latency speci c Bit-rate-speci c service guarantees are easier to provision, while latency speci c often means complex algorithms for dropping packets and managing queues Common algorithms like weighted fairness queues and random early detection are used for QoS provisioning
1174 Stability and convergence
PON protocols have to be stable, failing which the system would have high packet loss Stability is determined by the net drift between OLT and ONU Convergence of this drift into manageable margins is a prerequisite of the PON system, and this convergence should happen relatively quickly The higher the time required for convergence, the greater the frame loss probability
1175 SLA provisioning
Like QoS guarantee, service level agreement (SLA) provisioning is crucial to bringing in revenue SLA provisioning is another prerequisite of the PON protocol There are two aspects of the SLA that need attention First, the management aspect, whereby the ONU informs the OLT of the SLA and the OLT determines if the SLA is valid (secure identi cation, etc) Secondly, the OLT has to incorporate the new SLA into the protocol, and this procedure should be done in real time
In this chapter we discussed ber technologies in the last mile Fiber in the last mile is popularly provisioned through the concept of passive optical networks, or PONs PON technologies come in three avors, APONs/BPONs, EPONs and WDM PONs There are various schools of thought advocating each different technology While A/BPONs are TDM-based technologies, EPONs provide a packet-oriented scheme WDM PONs, on the other hand, can deploy any of the two other technologies A/BPONs are more suited for voice communication, while EPONs are more suited for data-centric communication A/BPONs, due to the synchronization requirement, are more expensive than EPONs in terms of technology However, EPONs have some issues with provisioning strict SLAs In summary, PON systems are likely to be dominant in the last mile for ber communication in years to come Though the star topology is clearly de ned for these kinds of system, it would be worth investigating other topologies like mesh and ber in the local loop Since network utilization in the access area is low, packet-based systems can be intuitively considered as