Backbone Optical Network Design for Community Networks in Visual Studio .NET

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Backbone Optical Network Design for Community Networks
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Payload
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Sonet STS-1 frame format
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STM-N payload
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SDH STM-N frame format
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Figure 93 (a) SONET payload for STS-1; (b) SDH payload for STM-1
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convention STM-N for its hierarchical deployment, where N is an integral multiple of the basic STM-1 speed In summary, SONET/SDH networks have been prevalent core technologies for the last two decades or so, and are excellent transport schemes for services such as voice communication However, the high cost of ADMs to provision SONET streams, and the inability of TDM to ef ciently transport bursty IP traf c, means that SONET/SDH hierarchy is unsuitable for next generation Internet and multiservice transport, typically for the community environment
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922 The WDM solution
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SONET/SDH systems can be scaled in the TDM scale only, meaning that, in order to provision a higher speed circuit using SONET/SDH, we have to increase the TDM line rate, ie multiplex
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slower tributaries into the same frame This seemed to be a plausible alternative for a long while, creating systems with OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 and eventually OC-192 for SONET transmission However, as the SONET line rate increases, we reach a saturation point whereby electronic systems become more and more dif cult to design and are impaired by phase matching and clock skew problems The limitation in electronics is quite in contrast to the available bandwidth juxtaposed by optical ber This gap between the bandwidth provision available by TDM and that available in optical ber, led to the deployment and advancement of WDM technology WDM means wavelength division multiplexing, and WDM systems allow multiple SONET or other data streams to co-exist in the same ber, each residing on a different wavelength The critical aspect in the design here is to ensure that no two signals have a wavelength (frequency) overlap in the WDM spectra Please refer to 4 of [2] to get a more vivid view of WDM systems WDM systems currently deploy multiple optical channels or wavelengths, and each wavelength supports an independent communication path The advent of WDM communication for transport of information was propelled by the advent of two major technologies arrayed waveguide multiplexers (AWGs), and Erbium doped ber ampli ers (EDFAs) The former was a subsystem able to multiplex multiple wavelengths (from individual lasers operating at a certain wavelength) into a single ber stream (as shown in Figure 94) Note that the mirror image of the multiplexer was the demultiplexer capable of demultiplexing a composite WDM signal into its constituent wavelengths The wavelength spacing is predetermined by a standardization movement initiated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and is called the ITU wavelength grid Current speci cations enable 100 GHz (08 nm) and 50 GHz (04 nm) spacing between adjacent channels, though laboratory trials of 125 and 625 GHz spacing have also successfully been carried out The EDFA was developed in the early 1990s in a parallel, independent effort by Myers in the UK and Kinoshita in Japan The EDFA could simultaneously amplify a group of channels in the optical medium without converting any of the channels into electronic signals This type of all-optical ampli cation propelled the rise of WDM for metro and long-haul transport Some other component technologies that enabled WDM communication are listed in Table 91
923 The Ethernet solution
Due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness, Ethernet has grown to be a de facto deployment methodology for local area networks It is estimated that there are some 470 000 Ethernet-based LANs across the globe One of the primary reasons for the success of Ethernet technology is its adaptability to suit the PC revolution, as well as the ease of mass deployment With the emergence of the Internet, it was debated whether Ethernet would be adaptable to WAN systems This led to a serious debate on whether Ethernet technology was disruptive in nature or evolutionary in nature, particularly as compared to legacy SONET systems in the wide area After much debate, nally, 1 Gigabit Ethernet, and later 10 Gigabit Ethernet, were standardized for WAN deployment While these standards (under 8023ae and 8023z) were conceptually and functionally different from the original Ethernet standard that deployed carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) for communication, the present GigE (short for Gigabit Ethernet) and 10 GigE (likewise for 10 Gigabit Ethernet) utilize switched Ethernet This means GigE and 10 GigE are point-to-point connections, and further, they do not require the critical