DWORD dwMi l l i second s , BOOl bAlertable in Visual Studio .NET

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C h a pter 5 : W i n d ows Ke r n e l Syn ch ro n i z a t i o n
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The single object wait APIs, Wa it F o r S i n g l eOb j e c t and Wa i t F o rS i n
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g l e Ob j e c t E x, take a single HAN D L E to an instance of any of the aforemen
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tioned waitable kernel objects and a timeout, dwT imeout, specified in milliseconds The value I N F I N I T E , which is just a constant defined as - 1 by W i n d ows h, can be passed to indicate that no timeout is desired A value of a requests that the function check the object's state and return immediately, guaranteeing that if the object is nonsignaled, no blocking will occur In other words, the function will not directly cause a context switch When the call to either function returns, the return value must be checked : a value of WAIT_OB J E CT_a ( a l ) means that the wait was successful and that the object had become signaled If the specific type of kernel object's state can be changed by waiting, such as with a mutex, semaphore, or auto-reset event, these changes will have occurred by the time the func tion returns A return value of WAIT_TIMEOUT ( 2 5 8 l ) means that the timeout expired before the object became signaled The return value WAI TJAI L E D ( axffffffff ) represents a n error, such a s a n invalid HAN D L E , inability to allocate system resources to perform the wait, and so forth Get L a s t E r r o r can then be called to retrieve additional details A fourth possible return value, WAI T_ABAN DON E D ( 1 2 8 l ) will be described later when we discuss mutexes in depth; it only applies to waiting on mutex objects and indicates that the mutex was not properly released by some previously executed piece of code Despite appearing to be an error, the wait is successful (Le, the mutex is owned) The multiple object variety o f the wait APIs, Wa i t F o rMu lt i p l eOb j e c t s and Wa i t F o rM u l t i pleObj e ct s E x effectively do the same thing a s the single object functions, with the only difference being that they can be used to wait for more than one kernel object at the same time The HAND L E s to wait on are passed in the I pH a n d l e s array, and the n C o u n t argument represents the number of objects in the array The maximum number of handles you can wait on at once is 64, as spec ified by the MAXIMUM_WAIT_OB J ECTS constant in WinNTh If you supply an argument of greater size, everything from the sixty-fourth element onward will be ignored This limitation can sometimes be tricky to work around if the number of events you wait on varies dynamically If this is a problem for you, please refer to 7, Thread Pools, where we look into a
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T h e B a s i c s : S i g n a l i n g a n d Wa i t i n g
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feature supported by both the native and managed thread pools to register an arbitrary number of waits The bWa i tAl l argument specifies whether wait-all (T R U E ) or wait-any ( F A LSE ) behavior is desired If you'd like to wait until all of the handles have become signaled, then you'll want to use a wait-all style wait (TRU E ) If you instead want the wait to return as soon as any single one of the handles becomes signaled, then you want the default of wait-any ( F A L S E ) For wait-all style waits, the return values are similar to the single object APIs: WAI T_O B J E CT_a indicates that all handles are signaled, WAIT_T I M E OUT indicates that the timeout expired, and WAITJAI L E D indicates a problem occurred The only difference in return values for wait-all is the way in which abandoned mutexes are communicated, because we need to know not just that a mutex was abandoned, but which specific object it was Sim ilarly, for wait-any waits, we need to know the index of the HAND L E in the array for the object that became signaled and caused the function to return Both cases are treated similarly For these cases, the element's array index is encoded in the return value itself In the case of a wait-any, the return value will be WAIT_OBJ E CT_a + i, where i is the signaled element's index in the HAND L E array and is within the range of WAIT_OBJ E CT_a to WAIT_OBJ E CT_a + nCount - 1, inclusive Remember that WAIT_OB J E CT_a is just the value a, so you can directly use the return value to index into the array without any translation (though it's the oretically better to subtract WAIT_OBJ E CT_a in case the value changes in the future) If at least one of the handles was a mutex and it was found to be aban doned, the retum value will instead be WAIT_ABANDON E D_a + i, where i is the abandoned mutex's index in the HAN D L E array To calculate the mutex's array index, simply subtract WAIT_ABANDON E D_a, which is the same value as WAIT_ABANDON ED If there are multiple abandoned mutexes in the wait list, only the first (index-wise) will be communicated An abandoned mutex does not imply failure: the wait will have been fully satisfied when you see a WAIT_ABANDoN ED_a value, that is, for a wait-all every other object is also signaled Wait-all is implemented efficiently in the Windows kernel, ensuring that a thread remains blocked even when only some of the many objects the thread is waiting for becomes signaled A naIve implementation of wait-all would
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