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c a s e D L L_PROC ESS_ATTACH : II Allocate a TLS s lot if g_dwMyTI s l nd e x TI sAlloc (
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} brea k j c a s e D L L_PROC ESS_DETACH : II F ree t h e TLS s lot T I s F ree ( g_dwMyTI s l n d ex ) j brea k j c a s e D L L_THR EAD_ATTACH : I I Allocate t h e t h read - lo c a l data TI sSetVa l ue ( g_dwMyT l s l ndex , new int [ 1024 ] ) j brea k j c a s e D L L_TH R EAD_D ETACH : II F ree t h e t h read loc a l data int * data reint e r p ret_c a st < int * > ( TI sGetVa l ue ( g_dwMyT l s l ndex j d e lete [ ] d at a j brea k j
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Recall from earlier that there are some cases i n which thread attach and detach notifications may be missed If a OLL is loaded dynamically, for example, threads may exist prior to the load, in which case there will not be D L L_TH R E AD_ATTACH notifications for them For that reason, you will usu ally need to write your code to check the TLS value to see if it has been initialized and, if not, do so lazily And as noted earlier, sometimes D L L_TH R E AD_D E TACH notifications will be skipped There is little within rea son you can do here, and so killing threads in a manner that skips detach notifications when TLS is involved often leads to leaks This is yet another reason to avoid APIs like T e r m i n ateTh r e a d
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Static TLS Instead of writing all of the boilerplate to T l sAlloc, Tl s F ree, and manage the per-thread data for each TLS slot, you can use the C++ _d e c l s pe c ( t h re a d ) modifier to turn a static or global variable into a TLS
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variable To d o this, instead o f writing the code above t o T l sA l l o c and T l s F ree a slot in Dl lMa i n, you can simply write:
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You will still need to initialize and free the array itself, however, on a per thread basis You can do this inside your own D l lMa i n thread attach and detach notification code When you use _d e c l s pe c ( t h r e a d ) , the compiler will perform all of the necessary TLS management during its own custom D l lMa i n initializa tion and produces more efficient code when reading from and writing to TLS Static TLS is substantially faster than dynamic TLS because the compiler has enough information to emit code during compilation that accesses slot addresses with a handful of instructions versus having to make one or more function calls to obtain the address, as with dynamic TLS The compiler knows the three pieces of information it needs to cre ate code that calculates a TLS slot's address: the TEB address (which it finds in a register), the slot index (known statically), and the offset inside the TEB at which the TLS array begins (constant per architecture) From there, it's a simple matter of some pointer arithmetic to access the data inside a TLS slot There are limitations around when you can use static TLS, however You can only use it from within a program or a DLL that will only be linked stat ically In other words, it cannot be used reliably when loaded dynamically via L o a d L i b r a ry If you try, you will encounter sporadic access violations when trying to access the TLS data
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