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II V a r i a nt 2 : I P a r a l l e l E n u me r a b l e < U > q 2 = s o u rc e AsParallel ( ) Where< T > ( s o u r c e , x = > p ( x Select < T , U > ( x = > f ( x j II Va r i a n t 3 : v a r q 3 = f rom x i n s o u r c e AsParallel ( ) where p ( x ) s e lect f ( x ) j
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Although it's simple to use PLINQ, it must be done with care, as with P a r a l l e l F o r and other parallel APIs, your operators are run in parallel, meaning any accesses to shared state from the delegates passed into PLINQ may result in race conditions There are also corresponding AsMerged methods that turn an I P a r a l l e l E n u me r a b l e < T > back into an I E n u me r a b l e < T > This can be used to force a portion of a PLINQ query to go through LINQ in case that portion relies on shared state or where parallelism has a negative performance impact In addition to that, AsMerged allows you to control the kind of buffering used by PLINQ We'll explore buffering and merging next
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Buffering and Merging When you create a query as shown above with q l , q 2, and q3, it has not yet begun running Execution of queries is lazy and will be deferred until you actually begin consuming the output That occurs on demand when you fore a c h over the query, upon the first call to MoveNext on the result of Get E n u m e r a t o r, or if you use a LINQ API like ToAr ray , ToD i c t i o n a ry, and so forth Any exceptions that occur during the execution of your query will, therefore, be thrown only when you've begun consuming the output of the query As with TPL, PLINQ exceptions are aggregated using the same
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The enumerator used to access the results of a query's execution needs to perform interthread coordination to get results from the con currently running tasks This is called merging and is the opposite of
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partitioning, which is what the query does initially to feed different por tions of the input to different tasks PLINQ goes out of its way to make sure these two operations are as efficient as possible since they are largely the only parts that internally require a lot of synchronization
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(and, hence, can become scalability bottlenecks) For example, PLINQ will do a far better job partitioning I L i s t < T > objects because they sup port random access; given any other I E n u me r a b l e < T > , PLINQ needs to serialize some portion of access to a shared enumerator One technique PLINQ uses to make the merge phase more efficient is to buffer elements as much as possible by default Three kinds of merges are possible You can control which is chosen by passing a P a r a l l e lMe rgeOpt ion s value to the AsMerged API
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AutoBuffered, aka pipelined with automatic buffering In this
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mode, which is the default for most queries, the thread consuming elements from the enumerator run concurrently with the query As elements are generated by the query, they are handed over to the enumerator To amortize the associated synchronization overhead, PLINQ will use some amount of buffering This also increases the latency for an element to be handed to the consumer, however, which could cause troubles if low latency is desired 2 Not Buffe red, aka pipelined with no buffering This mode is similar to the first in that the consumer runs concurrently with the query But unlike the first mode, elements are not buffered This reduces latency for an element to reach the consumer, but at the expense of more synchronization overhead For queries in which the cost of per element production is high, this can be appropriate 3 F u l lyBuffered, aka stop-and-go This mode allows PLINQ to avoid per element (or per buffer) synchronization when handing off elements to the consumer When execution of the query is triggered, the query will only return once the full output is available The call ing thread is used to run part of the query This increases the latency to retrieve the first result, but is the most efficient mode PLINQ offers in terms of execution time This mode can increase memory usage, however, because the full output needs to be held in memory For most uses of PLINQ, sticking to the default is wise That usually means AutoBuffered, but some things may trigger PLINQ to switch over to F u l lyB uffe r e d This happens if PLINQ would only be able to return the
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