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In this chapter, we switched our focus from the mechanics and techniques useful for building concurrent programs to the kinds of hazards that plague
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C h a pter 11: C o n c u rre n cy H a z a rd s
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them We've looked a t two broad categories o f hazards: correctness and liveness The presence of such a hazard is usually best treated like a bug that should be found and fixed-along with other ordinary bugs-before shipping your software Along the way, we've seen some ways to avoid or mitigate these errors The term "hazard" is certainly appropriate Some of the most famous bugs that slipped into production software have been due to concurrency A few examples
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In 1 985 through 1 987, six massive overdoses of radiation were admin istered to therapy patients via the Therac-25 machine The dosage was about 1 00 times the expected amount This incident lead to three of the affected patents dying and the others were left with serious injuries Many root causes have been identified, but a major cause was the presence of a race condition between the operator's input and the processing of that input (see Further Reading, Leveson, Turner) On August 1 4th, 2003, a massive power outage plagued the north eastern and Midwestern Us, in addition to Ontario, Canada This was the largest blackout in US history, affected 50 million people, and resulted in approximately $6 billion USD in financial losses The root cause as to why the software system did not respond correctly was also race condition (see Further Reading, Poulsen)
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In 1 997, the Mars Pathfinder mission launched a rover to Mars with the aim of collecting meteorological data It did this, but not without a large number of software hiccups within the first few days after landing Due to a software bug that eluded testing, the rover encountered a situation that caused it to continuously experience total system resets, losing data in the process These problems made the news and were eventually attributed to priority inversion (see Further Reading, Reeves)
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Any software bug that goes unnoticed can be just as deadly as any of these But as has been noted several times already, concurrency bugs more easily slip through the cracks due to the difficulty of testing for them In subsequent chapters we will look at some common data structures and patterns for using concurrency We'll look at Parallel Containers in 1 2,
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F u r t h e r R ea d l n l
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which are useful for any concurrent program manipulating data (nearly all of them) and Data and Task Parallelism in 1 3, which illustrates common uses of parallelism In addition to careful testing, following common practices can help reduce the occurrence of concurrency errors
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FU RTH ER READING
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M Abadi, C Flanagan, S N Freund Types for Safe Locking: Static Race Detection for Java In ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol 28, No 2 (2006) M Barnett, K R M Leino, W Schulte The Spec# Programming System: An Overview In CASSIS 2004, LNCS, Vol 3362 (Springer, 2004) C Brumme Apartments and Pumping in the CLR Weblog article, http: / / blogs msdncom / cbrumme / archive! 2004 / 02 /02/ 6621 9aspx (February 2004) L T Chen The Challenge of Race Conditions in Parallel Programming (Sun Developer Network, 2006) E G Coffman, Jr, M L Elphick, A Shoshani System Deadlocks In Computing
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Surveys, Vol 3, No 2 ( 971 )
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E W Dijkstra EWD31O: Hierarchical Ordering of Sequential Processes In Acta
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Informatica, 1 (2) ( 971 )
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E W Dijkstra EWD 623: The Ma thema tics Behind the Banker 's Algorithm I n
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Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective (Springer-Verlag, 1 982)
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J Duffy No More Hangs: Advanced Techniques to Avoid and Detect Deadlocks in NET Apps MSDN Magazine (2006) J Duffy Priority-Induced Starvation: Why SleepO ) is Better than Sleep(O); and the Windows Balance Set Manager Weblog article, http: / / wwbluebytesoftwarecom/ blog/ 2006 / 08 /23 / PriorityinducedStarvationWhySleep 1 IsBetterThanSleepOAndThe WindowsBalanceSetManageraspx (2006) N Leveson, C S Turner An Investigation of the Therac-25 Accidents In IEEE
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Computer, Vol 26, No 7 ( 993)
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B Meyer An Eiffel Tutorial: Interactive Software Engineering http: / / archiveeiffel com / doc/ online/ eiffeI50 / intro / language / tutorial-00html M Pietrek and R Osterlund Threading: Break Free of Code Deadlocks in Critical Sections Under Windows MSDN Magazine (2003)
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