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e l s ewhere
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C * pC = ; const int * pCdl = &pC - >d ; II ok ! * p C - >d = 42 ; II c omp i l e r e r ro r : c a n not write to c o n s t int * pCd2 = &pC - > d ; I I comp i l e r error : non - const pointer to c o n s t field int * pCd3 = con st_c a s t < int * > ( &pC - >d ) ; I I s u c ceed s !
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C h a pt e r 2: Syn c h ro n i z a t i o n a n d T i m e
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Casting away c a n st i s a generally frowned upon practice, but i s some times necessary And, a c a n st member function can actually modify state, but only if those fields have been marked with the mut a b l e modifier Using this modifier is favored over casting Despite these limitations, liberal and structured use of c a n s t can help build up a stronger and more formally checked notion of immutability in your programs Some of the best code bases I have ever worked on have used c a n s t pervasively, and in each case, I have found it to help tremendously with the maintainability of the system, even with concurrency set aside
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Dynamic Single Assignment Verification In most concurrent systems, single assignment has been statically enforced, and C# and C++ have both taken similar approaches It's possible to dynamically enforce single assign ment too You would just have to reject all subsequent attempts to set the variable after the first (perhaps via an exception), and handle the case where threads attempt to use an uninitialized variable Implementing this does require some understanding of the synchronization topics about to be discussed, particularly if you wish the end result to be efficient; some sample implementation approaches can be found in research papers (see Further Reading, Drejhammar, Schulte)
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Synchronization: Kinds and Techniques
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When shared mutable state is present, synchronization is the only remaining technique for ensuring correctness As you might guess, given that there's an entire chapter in this book dedicated to this topic- 1 1 , Concurrency Hazards-implementing a properly synchronized system is complicated In addition to ensuring correctness, synchronization often is necessary for behavioral reasons: threads in a concurrent system often depend on or com municate with other threads in order to accomplish useful functionality The term synchronization is admittedly overloaded and too vague on its own to be very useful Let's be careful to distinguish between two different, but closely related, categories of synchronization, which we'll explore in this book: 1 Data synchronization Shared resources, including memory, must be protected so that threads using the same resource in parallel do
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not interfere with one another Such interference could cause problems ranging from crashes to data corruption, and worse, could occur seemingly at random: the program might produce correct results one time but not the next A piece of code meant to move money from one bank account to another, written with the assumption of sequential execution, for instance, would likely fail if concurrency were naively added This includes the possibility of reaching a state in which the transferred money is in neither account! Fixing this problem often requires using mutual exclusion to ensure no two threads access data at the same time 2 Control synchronization Threads can depend on each others' traversal through the program's flow of control and state space One thread often needs to wait until another thread or set of threads have reached a specific point in the program's execution, perhaps to rendezvous and exchange data after finishing one step in a cooperative algorithm, or maybe because one thread has assumed the role of orchestrating a set of other threads and they need to be told what to do next In either case, this is called control synchronization The two techniques are not mutually exclusive, and it is quite common to use a combination of the two For instance, we might want a producer thread to notify a consumer that some data has been made available in a shared buffer, with control synchronization, but we also have to make sure both the producer and consumer access the data safely, using data synchronization Although all synchronization can be logically placed into the two general categories mentioned previously, the reality is that there are many ways to implement data and control synchronization in your programs on Windows and the NET Framework The choice is often fundamental to your success with concurrency, mostly because of per formance Many design forces come into play during this choice: from correctness-that is, whether the choice leads to correct code-to performance-that is, the impact to the sequential performance of your algorithm-to liveness and scalability-that is, the ability of your program
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