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+(dil djl )(f (j) (l) f (i) (l) )] The modi cation is accepted if f ( , i, j) < 0 St tzle and Hoos [816] proposed two strategies to decide if a swap is accepted: u The first-improvement strategy accepts the rst improving move, similar to standard hill-climbing search The best-improvement strategy considers the entire neighborhood and accepts the move that gives the best improvement [557], similar to steepest ascent hill-climbing search
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176 Assignments
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While the rst-improvement strategy is computationally less expensive than the bestimprovement strategy, it may require more moves to reach a local optimum Roux et al [743, 744] and Talbi et al [835] used TS as local search method Talbi et al used a recency-based memory, with the size of the tabu list selected randomly between n/2 and 3n/2
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Ant algorithms have been applied to many problems Some of these are summarized in Table 172 Note that this table is not a complete list of applications, but just provides a avor of di erent applications
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Assignments
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1 Consider the following situation: ant A1 follows the shortest of two paths to the food source, while ant A2 follows the longer path After A2 reached the food source, which path back to the nest has a higher probability of being selected by A2 Justify your answer 2 Discuss the importance of the forgetting factor in the pheromone trail depositing equation 3 Discuss the e ects of the and parameters in the transition rule of equation (176) 4 Show how the ACO approach to solving the TSP satis es all the constraints of the TSP 5 Comment on the following strategy: Let the amount of pheromone deposited be a function of the best route That is, the ant with the best route, deposits more pheromone Propose a pheromone update rule 6 Comment on the similarities and di erences between the ant colony approach to clustering and SOMs 7 For the ant clustering algorithm, explain why (a) the 2D-grid should have more sites than number of ants; (b) there should be more sites than data vectors 8 Devise a dynamic forgetting factor for pheromone evaporation
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Part V
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ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS
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An arti cial immune system (AIS) models the natural immune system s ability to detect cells foreign to the body The result is a new computational paradigm with powerful pattern recognition abilities, mainly applied to anomaly detection Di erent views on how the natural immune system (NIS) functions have been developed, causing some debate among immunologists These models include the classical view of lymphocytes that are used to distinguish between self and non-self, the clonal selection theory where stimulated B-Cells produce mutated clones, danger theory, which postulates that the NIS has the ability to distinguish between dangerous and non-dangerous foreign cells, and lastly, the network theory where it is assumed that B-Cells form a network of detectors Computational models have been developed for all these views, and successfully applied to solve real-world problems This part1 aims to provide an introduction to these computational models of the immune system 18 provides an overview of the natural immune system, while arti cial immune systems are discussed in 19
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1 This part on arti cial immune systems has been written by one of my PhD students, Attie Graa Herewith I extend my thanks to Attie for contributing this part to the book, making this a very complete book on computational intelligence
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The body has many defense mechanisms, which among others are the skin of the body, the membrane that covers the hollow organs and vessels, and the adaptive immune system The adaptive immune system reacts to a speci c foreign body material or pathogenic material (referred to as antigen) During these reactions the adaptive immune system adapts to better detect the encountered antigen and a memory is built up of regular encountered antigen The obtained memory speeds up and improves the reaction of the adaptive immune system to future exposure to the same antigen Due to this reason defense reactions are divided into three types: non-speci c defense reactions, inherited defense reactions and speci c defense reactions [582] The adaptive immune system forms part of the speci c defense reactions Di erent theories exist in the study of immunology regarding the functioning and organizational behavior between lymphocytes in response to encountered antigen These theories include the classical view, clonal selection theory, network theory, and danger theory Since the clonal selection, danger theory and network theory are based on concepts and elements within the classical view (see Section 181), the classical view will rst be discussed in detail to form a bases onto which the other three theories will be explained in Sections 185, 186 and 187
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