Applications of Competitive Coevolution in .NET

Printer QR Code in .NET Applications of Competitive Coevolution
Applications of Competitive Coevolution
Read QR In .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET framework Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in .NET applications.
The rst applications of coevolution were to evolve IPD strategies [33, 594, 595], and to evolve sorting algorithms [365] Since these applications, CCE has been applied to a variety of complex real-world problems, as summarized in Table 152 (please note that this is not a complete list of applications) The remainder of this section shows how CCE can be used to evolve game players for two-player, zero-sum, board games The approach described here is based on the work of Chellapilla and Fogel [120, 121, 268] for Checkers, and further investigated by [156, 286, 580, 654] for Chess, Checkers, Tick-Tack-Toe, the IPD, and Bao However, the model described here is not game speci c The coevolutionary game learning model trains neural networks in a coevolutionary fashion to approximate the evaluation function of leaf nodes in a game tree The learning model consists of three components: A game tree, expanded to a given ply-depth using game tree expansion algorithms such as minimax [629] The root tree represents the current board state, while the other nodes in the tree represent future board states The objective is to nd the next move to take the player maximally closer to its goal, ie to win the game To evaluate the desirability of future board states, an evaluation function is applied to the leaf nodes A neural network evaluation function to estimate the desirability of board states represented by the leaf nodes The NN receives a board state as its input, and
Painting Quick Response Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code ISO/IEC18004 image in VS .NET applications.
153 Cooperative Coevolution
Scanning QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In .NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Table 152 Applications of Competitive Coevolution Application Game learning Military tactical planning Controller design Robot controllers Evolving marketing strategies Rule generation for fuzzy logic controllers Constrained optimization Autonomous vehicles Scheduling Neural network training Drug design Iterated prisoners dilemma Reference [119, 120, 171, 249, 268, 286, 580, 615, 684, 739] [455] [513] [20, 60, 132, 293, 424, 541, 631, 658, 859] [786] [415] [144, 589, 784] [93] [855] [119, 120, 286, 580, 657] [738] [33, 172, 594, 595]
Drawing Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode generator for VS .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET applications.
produces a scalar output as the board state desirability A population of NNs, where each NN is represented by one individual, and trained in competition with other NNs Any EA (or PSO) can be used to adapt the weights The objective of the above model, also summarized in Algorithm 153, is to evolve game-playing agents from zero knowledge about playing strategies As is evident from Algorithm 153, the training process is not supervised No target evaluation of board states is provided The lack of desired outputs for the NN necessitates a coevolutionary training mechanism, where a NN competes against a sample of NNs in game tournaments After each NN has played a number of games against each of its opponents, it is assigned a score based on the number of wins, losses and draws These scores are then used as the relative tness measure Note that the population of NNs is randomly initialized
Barcode Decoder In .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
Cooperative Coevolution
Quick Response Code Drawer In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET applications.
Section 151 referred to three di erent types of cooperative coevolution This section focuses on mutualism, where individuals from di erent species (or subpopulations) have to cooperate in some way to solve a global task Here, the tness of an individual depends on that individual s ability to collaborate with individuals from other species One of the major problems to resolve in such cooperative coevolution algorithms is that of credit assignment: How should the tness achieved by the collective e ort of all species be fairly split among the participating individuals De Jong and Potter [194] proposed a general framework for evolving complex solutions
Painting QR Code JIS X 0510 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
282 Algorithm 153 Coevolutionary Training of Game Agents
QR-Code Printer In VB.NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
15 Coevolution
EAN / UCC - 13 Generator In .NET Framework
Using Barcode encoder for .NET Control to generate, create EAN / UCC - 14 image in .NET applications.
Create and randomly initialize a population of NNs; while stopping condition(s) not true do for each individual (or NN) do Select a sample of competitors from the population; for each opponent do for a specified number of times do Play a game as rst player using the NNs as board state evaluators in a game tree; Record if game was won, lost, or drawn; Play another game against the same opponent, but as second player; Record if game was won, lost, or drawn; end end Determine a score for the individual; end Evolve the population for one generation; end Return the best individual as the NN evaluation function; by merging subcomponents, evolved independently from one another A separate population is used to evolve each subcomponent using some EA Representations from each subcomponent is then combined to form a complete solution, which is evaluated to determine a global tness Based on this global tness, some credit ows back to each subcomponent re ecting how well that component collaborated with the others This local tness is then used within the subpopulation to evolve a better solution Potter and De Jong [687] applied this approach to function optimization For an nx -dimensional problem, nx subpopulations are used one for each dimension of the problem Each subpopulation is therefore responsible for optimizing one of the parameters of the problem, and no subpopulation can form a complete solution by itself Collaboration is achieved by merging a representative from each subpopulation The e ectiveness of this collaboration is estimated as follows: Considering the j-th subpopulation, Cj , then each individual, Cj xi , of Cj performs a single collaboration with the best individual from each of the other subpopulations by merging these best components with Cj xi to form a complete solution The credit assigned to Cj xi is simply the tness of the complete solution Potter and De Jong found that this approach does not perform well when problem parameters are strongly interdependent, due to the greediness of the credit assignment approach To reduce greediness two collaboration vectors can be constructed The rst vector is constructed by considering the best individuals from each subpopulation as described above The second vector chooses random individuals from the other subpopulations, and merges these with Cj xi The best tness of the two vectors is used as the credit for Cj xi In addition to function optimization, Potter and De Jong also applied this approach
USS Code 128 Creator In .NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in .NET framework applications.
154 Assignments to evolve cascade neural networks [688] and robot learning [194, 690]
Make UPC-A Supplement 2 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create UPC Symbol image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Other applications of cooperative coevolution include the evolution of predator-prey strategies using GP [358], evolving fuzzy membership functions [671], robot controllers [631], time series prediction [569], and neural network training [309]
Drawing MSI Plessey In .NET
Using Barcode maker for .NET Control to generate, create MSI Plessey image in .NET framework applications.
Creating Data Matrix 2d Barcode In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for VS .NET Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in .NET applications.
Code39 Generator In Visual C#
Using Barcode generation for VS .NET Control to generate, create USS Code 39 image in VS .NET applications.
Scanning Code128 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
DataMatrix Maker In Java
Using Barcode drawer for Java Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Java applications.