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Digital Video (CCIR 601) 140 Digital Video (CIF) Fast Ethernet Ethernet T1 ISDN POTS 0 4 15 0128 00336 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 35 40
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Figure 172 Why we need compression
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Even modern networks such as Fast Ethernet, for example, have a net capacity of approximately 40 Mbps Thus, theoretically, a single lowresolution video stream already would completely exhaust the capacity of a modern high-speed network link For standard Ethernet or even wide-area connections, the gap widens considerably Compare the rate of a modem (POTS) at 336 kbps with the requirements of video, and it becomes clear why compression is needed and what compression can do Modern video compression standards such as H263 yield about VHStype quality at data rates as low as 500 kbps Even over telephone lines, live video transmission with about 15 fps does not constitute a problem All this shows that today s networks are indeed suitable to support many parallel video streams Which Method to Use Now that you understand the need for video compression, the next question arises: Which is the best method or algorithm to be used While it certainly would go beyond the scope of this chapter to explain
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all schemes in detail, along with their associated pros and cons, some general guidelines will be provided Figure 173 shows the applicable operating ranges of different compression schemes, and it can be seen that the answer to the preceding question really depends on the application and the requirements A video camera can deliver up to 60 fps (frames, or fields, per second) If the application calls for very smooth motion rendition and best video quality (30 fps and above), the algorithm to look at is MPEG-2 Incidentally, MPEG-2 is also used on DVDs and for digital video broadcast, for which it was developed in the first place Thus, quality is hardly an issue On the other hand, MPEG-2 really makes sense only above data rates of 2 Mbps (DVDs run at about 6 Mbps), so a spacious local area network (LAN) and recording to hard disk are the typical environments for MPEG-2 If data rate is at a premium, for example in WAN applications over ISDN or even analog telephone lines (POTS), it is better to limit the field rate to a maximum of 30 fps and use H323, which is the standard for videoconferencing over the Internet (as used by Microsoft NetMeeting, for example) H323 and its underlying H263 video coding scheme are very efficient and introduce minimal delay The lowest delay possible is important for live monitoring as well as for remote control of cameras, such as domes or pan/tilt/zoom drives
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Bandwidth (Mbit/s) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 H323 30 40 50 60 Field rate (fps) MPEG-2 JPEG
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Figure 173 Which compression method to choose
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How does this relate to the ever-so-popular JPEG scheme In general, JPEG is a still-picture coding scheme The term M-JPEG, with M for motion, relates to a successive application of the JPEG method to each of the fields of the video source Because static areas are not filtered, however, motion is not taken into consideration, and temporal redundancies are not accounted for JPEG, therefore, is always less efficient than the aforementioned standards
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NOTE a rule of thumb, for any given frame rate and quality, JPEG or M-JPEG typically reAs
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quires 10 times the data rate Or, to look at this the other way around, at a fixed and given data rate, M-JPEG will yield a tenth of the frame rate
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The wavelet method is slightly more efficient than JPEG, but the same principal behavior still holds Both JPEG and wavelet are well suited for local storage applications, where ease of handling, such as arbitrary extraction of images and backward single stepping during playback, are more important than raw efficiency
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In the analog world, a video signal may be connected to more than one receiver: Typically, a camera is connected to a monitor for viewing and, in parallel, to a VCR for recording Additionally, the signal eventually is fed into a matrix or connected to a transmission unit To this end, loopthrough interfaces are used, or the termination of the video signal is switched off in all but the last unit of the chain For an even larger distribution of the signal, special distribution amplifiers are capable of feeding eight or more inputs In the digital networking world, the simultaneous viewing or recording of a networked video source is called multicasting In contrast to a pointto-point connection, also called unicast, multicasting offers the simultaneous reception of the same digital video stream at several receivers (Figure 174)
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