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Seamless integration with standard databases Digital networked video is no different from all the other data that travel your network Digital video may be stored using the same kinds of servers that are already in use for other corporate data (for example, CAD files) Standard printing, reporting, and archiving tools Last but not least, all the tools available in the information technology (IT) world may be put to work for CCTV applications as well In order to tap into all the advantages offered by digital video technology, four main building blocks compression, transmission, recording, and analysis are required (Figure 171) It all starts with a standard camera, for example, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) or the latest CMOS technology Compression The purpose of compression is to reduce the data rate of the digital video signal down to a value that is compatible with the transmission capabilities of the considered network A good compression scheme retains as much of the original information as possible By filtering static information and filtering information that a human observer cannot perceive, and by producing the most efficient representation of the digital data, significant savings are obtainable Typical compression ratios range from 10 to several 100, depending on algorithms and requirements Transmission The compressed data signal needs to be adapted to the environment of the considered network Compressed data are surrounded by the appropriate network headers and embedded into the respective protocols For Ethernet networks, a packetization of the data is required With knowledge of the underlying meaning of the payload data, packetization can be performed in a clever manner so that lost packets do not cause catastrophic failures but rather small artifacts, sometimes too small to notice
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Streaming for Security and Sur veillance
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Compression adapt data rate to capacity of network
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Analysis detect objects, motion, biometrics, etc Figure 171 Building blocks for networked video
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Recording About 90 percent of all recorded video is never viewed again but rather is overwritten or deleted In order to avoid network utilization or loading, recording may take place at the camera site or even within the camera Digital video is recorded in a decentralized fashion, allowing it to be used in a manner similar to the way data is used by today s computer users, who do not know, or even care to know, where a wanted file is located physically For backup purposes and/or to increase the capacity of local recording, the network can periodically flush or copy the content of the local recording to another archiving medium Local recording is also very powerful for assessing the prealarm history: Comprehensive coverage of the time before an alarm occurred aids in determining postalarm action plans ranging from alarm classification to prosecution
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Analysis One of the most powerful advantages of digital video is signal processing To name but a few of the endless possibilities, digital signal processing makes it possible to analyze the video scene for moving objects, particular motion patterns, license plates, even human faces Especially with chips and algorithms becoming ever more powerful, formerly dumb CCTV components will turn into intelligent units These intelligent cameras can effectively assist human observers without showing fatigue or distraction They can even carry out automated recording tasks or other functions on an autonomous regime
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It was mentioned earlier that compression is one of the building blocks of a video network This section will provide some insights into why compression of video data is required in the first place and which compression algorithm is best suited for a particular application
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Why It s Needed When an analog video signal such as a National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) or Phase Alternate Line (PAL) signal is digitized, this is usually done in accordance to the CCIR 601 standard This standard accounts for a true and high-quality representation of the video signal at the cost of high data rate requirements Figure 172 depicts the data rates of two digital video representations and contrasts them with the bandwidth available over some popular networks As can be seen in the upper row, the digital format CCIR 601 requires a bandwidth of approximately 140 Mbps Even if the video is subsampled to a lower resolution for example, the Common Intermediate Format (CIF) with 352 pixels and 288 lines and only every other field is transmitted, the resulting data rate is no lower than about 35 Mbps
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