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friendly countries where more pro table factories could be built like Mexico s maquiladoras The World Bank notes from 1986 to 1994 that MNC foreign direct investment jumped from $39 billion annually to $156 billion, the majority going to Asia but also to Latin America and former Soviet nations The third wave brought a new mode of nancial investing, which began around 1989 as the Brady Plan helped dislodge the emerging market debt overhang that sti ed foreign nancial investment and growth in the 1970s and 1980s16 Moreover, with the tide of privatization and nancial liberalization that swept markets in the wake of the Soviet Union s fall, local stock markets took root around the globe In the spring of 1993, the International Finance Corporation launched its rst investable equity index for emerging markets, providing G7 nations, global banks, and other investors with a benchmark for this new asset class to help them further diversify portfolios and boost returns In 1994, the fourth wave broke Mature, broadened EM stock and bond markets had arrived in the former Soviet Union countries, China, India, and other previously isolated economies These newly capitalist countries offered nancial markets that could be tapped by foreign investors for the rst time in decades By 2000, hard currency reserves were mounting in EMs due to rapid export earnings and high savings rates This generated a fth wave, as successful EM countries invested in other rapidly expanding nancial markets for diversi cation For example, South Korean insurance companies bought vast amounts of Mexican and Russian bonds; Singaporean government investment funds bought shares of Latin American companies; and Brazilian banks invested in Asian hedge funds This process has only accelerated since We are now smack in the middle of the sixth wave, perhaps the signi cant yet In recent years, tremendous capital ows have been directed from emerging markets to developed countries, including the G7 The leading 20 EM economies have seen their hard currency reserves swell to more than $35 trillion by mid-2008 These developing country central banks use their coffers to regularly buy hundreds of billions of US Treasury bonds that help fund the Unites States trade and
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government de cits The sixth wave also includes direct investments, including billions that sovereign wealth funds have used to buy stakes in Western nancial institutions amid the recent US subprime mortgage meltdown It also includes emerging market MNCs buying companies in the G7 The sheer weight of this money has helped keep interest rates low, which, in turn, fanned not only the ames of cross-border investment and consumption, but also contributed to the asset bubbles that have sprung up around the globe This current wave and credit crisis should be a wake-up call to the G7 There are now so many economically powerful countries, so many competitive global companies, and so many new nancial players amid so many markets that a complex rethinking of nancial strategies is required by all governments and companies The G7 is clearly no longer the only game in town, but part of a highly interconnected global capital system with dozens of countries The credit crisis underscores the interconnected nature of nance (See Figure 26)
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Source: McKinsey Global Institute Global Financial Stock Database Note: Value of Bank Deposits, Bonds, and Equity as a Percentage of GDP, 2006
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In the past, most blue-chip companies would list on the New York or London stock exchanges to gain prestige and access to capital But money is everywhere today, creating nancial hubs in places such as Dubai, Singapore, and Hong Kong As economic might shifts toward China, India, and other emerging countries, competition in nancial services has never been so intense For example, as of May 2008, Hong Kong s stock market ranked seventh largest in the world in terms of market capitalization, with over 1,200 companies listed and a market cap of nearly $25 trillion Well-positioned to capitalize on the China boom, Hong Kong is also the largest venture capital center in Asia, managing about 29 percent of the total capital pool in the region17 Newcomers Dubai and Abu Dhabi are also becoming hubs for investments, with their proximity to the wealthy major oil producers where vast wealth has been created The Economist estimates that nearly $2 trillion in investments come from the Gulf region, most of which is currently invested abroad In 2006, McKinsey estimated at least $200 billion petrodollars were invested in global equity markets, $100 billion in xed-income markets, and $40 billion in hedge funds, private equity, and other alternative investments After just a few short years of rising oil prices, this region has some of the world s deepest pockets Moreover, stricter rules for US-listed companies also have encouraged companies to list elsewhere According to McKinsey, in 2005 only one of the world s 24 largest initial public offerings (IPOs) was registered in the United States In 2007, more money was raised through IPOs in Hong Kong than either New York or London The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which sought to clamp down on corporate malfeasance by tightening US accounting standards, may scare away foreign rms eager to list their stock on US exchanges Even a well-known foreign corporation like Nestle has been unable or unwilling to meet the requirements to list on the New York Stock Exchange18 The United States still is the perceived leader in securitization and debt markets, but legal and regulatory stringency coupled with the growth of other nancial centers means a listing on